BERLIOZ ORCHESTRATION TREATISE PDF

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BERLIOZ TREATISE. UPON MODERN. INSTRUMENTATION AND ORCHESTRATION. INTRODUCTION. leaving to the hearer the delight of imagining the. FOREWORD. When I was asked by the publishersto enlarge and revise the " Treatise on Instrumentation" by Hector. Berlioz, I thought at first that the masterwork. Grand traité d'instrumentation et d'orchestration modernes, Op (Berlioz, Hector ) .. Alternative. Title, Treatise on Instrumentation and Modern Orchestration.


Berlioz Orchestration Treatise Pdf

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[Grand traité d'instrumentation et d'orchestration modernes. English]. Berlioz's orchestration treatise: a translation and commentary/[translation, commentary by] . Berlioz's orchestration treatise is a classic textbook which has been used as - Berlioz's Orchestration Treatise: A Translation and Commentary -. Nineteenth-Century Music - Berlioz's Orchestration Treatise - edited by Hugh Macdonald. PDF; Export citation . Appendix: Berlioz's writings on instruments.

Romantic composers rejected the basic forms of the classical period and preferred to develop new forms of their own.

Hector Berlioz's Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration , published in , signaled the recognition of orchestration as an art in itself. Musical nationalism was expressed when romantic composers deliberately created music with a specific national identity.

Treatise On Instrumentation

To intensify the expression of the music, romantic performers made use of rubato, the slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo. American Revolution B. Napoleonic Wars C.

Ce beau soprano instrumental si retentissant, si riche d'accents penetrants quand on l'emploie par masses gagne dans le solo en delicatesse, en nuances fugitives en affectuosites mysterieuses ce qu'il perd en force et en puissants eclats. Rien de virginal, rien de pur comme le coloris donne a certaines melodies par le timbre d'une clarinette jouee dans le medium par un virtuose habile.

C'est celui de tous les instruments a vent, qui peut le mieux faire naltre, enfler, diminuer et perdre le son. De la la faculte precieuse de produire le lointain, l'echo, l'echo de l'echo, le son crepusculaire. Quel plus admirable exemple pourrai-je citer de l'application de quelques unes de ces nuances, que la phrase reveuse de clarinette, accompagnee d'un tremolo des instruments a cordes, dans le milieu de l'Allegro de l'ouverture de Freyschiitz!

N'est-ce pas la vierge isolee, la blonde fiancee du chasseur, qui les yeux au ciel, mele sa tendre plainte au bruit des bois profonds agites par l'orage? O Weber! Strauss goes only part of the way with Berlioz in his evocation of romantic forests and twilights.

He was writing in a more realistic age, his remarks reflecting passionate, underlying associations. The clarinet, he says, which has "so much sweetness and innocence in Weber" becomes in 'Parsifal' "the embodiment of demoniac sensuality", proclaiming in Kundry's scenes "the dreadful and haunting voices of seduction". However, the composer of Brander's ironic 'Histoire d'un rat' in the 'Damnation de Faust' would have 41 This content downloaded from One might almost be listening to Berlioz's own words: "Weber draws from the bassoon heart-rending tones of suffering innocence-in the cavatina Act III of Euryanthe languishing alone in the forest".

In his enthusiastic review of the work in the Brussels journal Le Guide Musical" Ernest Closson draws attention to the fact that no examples of Russian music are given. Indeed, Strauss seems not to have been greatly drawn to the Russian school;12 otherwise the volume, by drawing upon examples from the national school, and particularly Rimsky-Korsakov and Moussorgsky, both of whom regarded the 'Treatise' as their bible, would have been much larger.

Nor are there illustrations, Closson notes, from the "young French school", which, one imagines, does not include Charpentier, since there is a reference to the use of the celesta in an opera that was a particular favourite of Strauss, 'Louise'. The American publishers have substituted the fanfare for muted trumpets in 'Fetes' for Strauss's illustration from 'Feuersnot'.

But the interesting affinity that we are now able to establish is between certain aspects of the orchestration of Berlioz and Debussy.

The 'Queen Mab' scherzo and the opening section of 'Fetes' are certainly the works where the two composers seem to have been inspired by the same lightness of texture. One sees here the same swift and elusive figurations; the same unexpected gleam of instrumental colour the flashing flutes in 'Fetes', the pastel shades of a pair of horns in the scherzo ; the same vivacity and airiness; and the same concern with the timbres of cymbals, the metallic antique cymbals in the scherzo earlier used by Debussy for a glinting effect in 'L'Apres-midi d'un faune' and the large cymbal, tingling in the air in an Impressionist fashion in 'Fetes'.

I think it is right to say that in both cases the models for this type of orchestration must have been the three fairy choruses in Weber's 'Oberon', and particularly the Presto agitato in the chorus 'Spirits of Air and Earth and Sea' Act II.

Strauss: 'I don't know a Russian opera that has genius'. Rolland: 'There's this one'. Omissions of French and Russian music were observed by Closson, but not, apart from the works of Strauss himself, the omission of contemporary German and Austrian music.

Oh no, there's been an error

Mahler is mentioned only casually in the revision, in regard to his use in the symphonies of high clarinets and percussion instruments. Yet here again, with hindsight, we are able to perceive resemblances seldom imagined by earlier generations. We see now, for instance, that Mahler inherited Berlioz's sense of musical irony, which he enlarged and magnified, and that it was Mahler, in his 'Symphony of a Thousand', who realized the Berliozian ideal of a miniature army of performers.

Orchestrally, Mahler nearly always leans in the direction of Berlioz rather than Wagner. However this may be, a striking glimpse of the affinity between Mahler and Berlioz was given by a French critic, Amedde Boutarel, in his notice of a performance, which Mahler conducted in Paris in o, of his second symphony. Ten years earlier Mahler had conducted the 'Symphonie fantastique' there. Is Mahler's enormous second symphony, expressing a com- plexity of ideas within too restricted a framework, "not an enlarged, amplified and exaggerated Fantastic Symphony?

The Allegro of this symphony corresponds to 'Reveries et passions', the minuet "is the 'Ball' movement removed to another setting and another period". Berlioz in the 'Scene aux champs' shows us the artist in Nature; Mahler follows his wanderings in the Viennese Prater.

Memories of the 'Marche au supplice' and the 'Dies irae' are recalled in the heroic march and the funeral chorale of the finale, where, as in Berlioz, there is "a certain admixcure of irony and faith and an intermingling of despair and ecstasy".

Nor are comparisons restricted to these moral issues. Boutarel continues: There is the same obsession with colliding musical ideas, violent sonorities, lugubrious silences, drum effects, and there is even as in the Berlioz work, a flute warbling about in the middle of the finale. Everything about the work suggests the grandiose genius of Berlioz where contrasts are thrown sharply into relief.

Oddly, he does not note that in the section on the horn there is no mention of the famous horn passages in Strauss's own works, nor does Strauss refer to the horn solo in the 'Chasse royale', which was written sixteen years after Berlioz published the 'Treatise' and must surely have been known to him.

The tremolo has a remote history, but mutes, judging from Berlioz's examples, seem at that time to have been used only sparingly. Gluck's 'Alceste' Act II, 'Chi mi parla' and the sudden transition from muted to bright tones in the 'Queen Mab' scherzo are Berlioz's only examples; nor does Strauss conspicuously add to these effects by illustrations from 'Die Meistersinger' and 'Tristan'.

In I Strauss might have given examples of some of the entirely novel muted string writing in Debussy and Mahler. Abundant quotations from five of Gluck's operas are given by Berlioz, and it is again Gluck who was his model for the use of the viola.

A precursor, in 'Harold en Italie', of the present-day vogue for the viola, Berlioz refers to "the terrible persevering murmur of the violas" and "particularly to the timbre of its third string" in 'Iphigenie en Tauride' when Orestes falls asleep with the words 'Le calme rentre dans mon coeur'. Strauss, confronted with these choice examples, falls back automatically on the scores of Wagner and refers to the more deeply coloured passages in 'Tannhauser', 'Lohengrin' and 'Die Meistersinger'.

IMSLP42666-PMLP28373-Berlioz_A_treatise_upon_modern_instrumentation_(1858).pdf

There is apparently more agreement in their approach to Gluck's treatment of the woodwind. Berlioz was inspired by the low sustained notes on the flute which actually have a trumpet quality in 'Alceste' and in Agatha's prayer in 'Der Freischiitz'; Strauss was drawn to this same effect in 'Lohengrin'. The cor anglais is illustrated by the well-known passage in the 'Scene aux champs' so romantically described , and by its use in the first and second acts of 'Lohengrin'.

Finally, Gluck and Wagner face each other in their very different use of trombones and cymbals. A forgotten world of instrumental colour can be reconstructed if we look behind these marginal remarks of Strauss.

Berlioz was aware of the affinities between the orchestra of Gluck and the orchestra of Weber: both display the same freshness of woodwind colour, the same sense of graded colours in string writing; Strauss, on the other hand, was aware of Weber's affinity with Wagner. He realized that the separate colour schemes sought out by Weber in his combinations of divided strings violins, violins and violas, violas and cellos led to Wagner's infinite wealth of string colouration.

But it was above all the motives inspiring Weber's woodwind writing, particularly his clarinet writing, that set Berlioz's Romantic heart alight.

In one of the most eloquent passages in the 'Treatise' he speaks of "those coldly threatening effects" in the lower register of the clarinet, producing "those dark accents of quiet rage which Weber so ingeniously invented". His description, in the original, of the clarinet in 'Der Freischiitz' forms an exquisite vignette of Romantic writing: Je n'ai jamais pu entendre de loin une musique militaire sans etre vivement emu par ce timbre feminin des clarinettes, et preoccupe d'images de cette nature, comme apres la lecture des antiques epopees.

Ce beau soprano instrumental si retentissant, si riche d'accents penetrants quand on l'emploie par masses gagne dans le solo en delicatesse, en nuances fugitives en affectuosites mysterieuses ce qu'il perd en force et en puissants eclats.

Rien de virginal, rien de pur comme le coloris donne a certaines melodies par le timbre d'une clarinette jouee dans le medium par un virtuose habile.

C'est celui de tous les instruments a vent, qui peut le mieux faire naltre, enfler, diminuer et perdre le son. De la la faculte precieuse de produire le lointain, l'echo, l'echo de l'echo, le son crepusculaire. Quel plus admirable exemple pourrai-je citer de l'application de quelques unes de ces nuances, que la phrase reveuse de clarinette, accompagnee d'un tremolo des instruments a cordes, dans le milieu de l'Allegro de l'ouverture de Freyschiitz!

N'est-ce pas la vierge isolee, la blonde fiancee du chasseur, qui les yeux au ciel, mele sa tendre plainte au bruit des bois profonds agites par l'orage?

O Weber!

Strauss goes only part of the way with Berlioz in his evocation of romantic forests and twilights. He was writing in a more realistic age, his remarks reflecting passionate, underlying associations.

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The clarinet, he says, which has "so much sweetness and innocence in Weber" becomes in 'Parsifal' "the embodiment of demoniac sensuality", proclaiming in Kundry's scenes "the dreadful and haunting voices of seduction".

However, the composer of Brander's ironic 'Histoire d'un rat' in the 'Damnation de Faust' would have 41 This content downloaded from One might almost be listening to Berlioz's own words: "Weber draws from the bassoon heart-rending tones of suffering innocence-in the cavatina Act III of Euryanthe languishing alone in the forest".

In his enthusiastic review of the work in the Brussels journal Le Guide Musical" Ernest Closson draws attention to the fact that no examples of Russian music are given.

Indeed, Strauss seems not to have been greatly drawn to the Russian school;12 otherwise the volume, by drawing upon examples from the national school, and particularly Rimsky-Korsakov and Moussorgsky, both of whom regarded the 'Treatise' as their bible, would have been much larger. Nor are there illustrations, Closson notes, from the "young French school", which, one imagines, does not include Charpentier, since there is a reference to the use of the celesta in an opera that was a particular favourite of Strauss, 'Louise'.

The American publishers have substituted the fanfare for muted trumpets in 'Fetes' for Strauss's illustration from 'Feuersnot'. But the interesting affinity that we are now able to establish is between certain aspects of the orchestration of Berlioz and Debussy. The 'Queen Mab' scherzo and the opening section of 'Fetes' are certainly the works where the two composers seem to have been inspired by the same lightness of texture.

One sees here the same swift and elusive figurations; the same unexpected gleam of instrumental colour the flashing flutes in 'Fetes', the pastel shades of a pair of horns in the scherzo ; the same vivacity and airiness; and the same concern with the timbres of cymbals, the metallic antique cymbals in the scherzo earlier used by Debussy for a glinting effect in 'L'Apres-midi d'un faune' and the large cymbal, tingling in the air in an Impressionist fashion in 'Fetes'.

I think it is right to say that in both cases the models for this type of orchestration must have been the three fairy choruses in Weber's 'Oberon', and particularly the Presto agitato in the chorus 'Spirits of Air and Earth and Sea' Act II. Strauss: 'I don't know a Russian opera that has genius'.Commentaires et adjonctions co-ordonnes et traduits par Ernest Closson', pp. It can be used for melodies and accents of different kinds, though it cannot match the artless gaiety of the oboe or the noble tenderness of the clarinet.

Even Beethoven is very sparing in his used of stopped notes when he is not writing a solo part for the horns. Elwart, Histoire de la Soci et e des Concerts Paris, , pl. But when I hear this instrument used to double three octaves above the melody of a baritone, to utter its shrill cry in the midst of religious harmonies, to add power and incisiveness to the upper part of the orchestra, from the beginning to the end of the act in an opera, and all just for the sake of noise, I cannot help finding this style of instrumental writing flat, stupid, and in general worthy only of the melodic style to which it is applied.

But there is nothing more brilliant, better defined and more devoid of shrillness despite their brilliance than all the notes of the upper octave. Gluck , Beethoven , Mozart, Weber , Spontini , and a few others have fully understood the importance of the role of the trombones.

DANIELL from Daytona Beach
Look over my other posts. I'm keen on baseball pocket billiards. I do relish studying docunments certainly.
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