Engineering Class handwritten notes, exam notes, previous year questions, PDF free download. Advanced Computer Architecture Parallelism, Scalability – Kai Hwang: Advance Computer Architecture. 10CS Page Reorder Buffer. Notes. Technology. • What is “Computer Architecture” Advanced uni-processor/single- chip architecture. – Will use .. Notes will not be provided for all discussions.
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I am sharing witrh you the ebook of Advanced Computer Architecture for CS/IT Engineering students and you can download the PDF file. Also. Subject: ADVANCED COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE. Credits: 4 age, is no more limited to computer programmers and computer engineers. Rather than. advanced computer architecture lecture notes and advanced computer architecture and parallel processing | pdf free download.
Network properties and routing The goals of an interconnection network are to provide low-latency high data transfer rate wide communication bandwidth. Analysis includes latency bisection bandwidth data- routing functions scalability of parallel architecture These Network usually represented by a graph with a finite number of nodes linked by directed or undirected edges.
Network is symmetric if the topology is the same looking from any node; these are easier to implement or to program. Diameter: The maximum distance between any two processors in the network or in other words we can say Diameter, is the maximum number of routing processors through which a message must pass on its way from source to reach destination.
Thus diameter measures the maximum delay for transmitting a message from one processor to another as it determines communication time hence smaller the diameter better will be the network topology. By - Aniket Sugandhi Page no: 12 Follow us on facebook to get instant updates: fb. Higher connectivity is desirable as it minimizes contention.
Arch connectivity of the network: the minimum number of arcs that must be removed for the network to break it into two disconnected networks. Channel width :The channel width is the number of bits that can communicated simultaneously by a interconnection bus connecting two processors: Bisection Width and Bandwidth: In order divide the network into equal halves we require the remove some communication links. The minimum numbers of such communication links that have to be removed are called the Bisection Width.
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Bisection width basically provide us the information about the largest number of messages which can be sent simultaneously without needing to use the same wire or routing processor at the same time and so delaying one another , no matter which processors are sending to which other processors.
Thus larger the bisection width is the better the network topology is considered. Bisection Bandwidth is the minimum volume of communication allowed between two halves of the network with equal numbers of processors. This is important for the networks with weighted arcs where the weights correspond to the link width i.
The Larger bisection width the better network topology is considered. Cost the cost of networking can be estimated on variety of criteria where we consider the number of communication links or wires used to design the network as the basis of cost estimation, smaller the better the cost. It can be static as in case of hypercube routing network or dynamic such as multistage network.
Various type of data routing functions are Shifting, Rotating, Permutation one to one , Broadcast one to all , Multicast many to many , Personalized broadcast one to many , Shuffle, Exchange Etc. Network latency — worst-case time for a unit message to be transferred Bandwidth — maximum data rate. Hardware complexity — implementation costs for wire, logic, switches, connectors, etc.
Scalability — how easily does the scheme adapt to an increasing number of processors, memories, etc. Static interconnection networks Static interconnection networks for elements of parallel systems ex. Static interconnection networks can have many structures such as a linear structure pipeline , a matrix, a ring, a torus, a complete connection structure, a tree, a star, a hyper-cube. In linear and matrix structures, processors are interconnected with their neighbors in a regular structure on a plane.
A torus is a matrix structure in which elements at the matrix borders are connected in the frame of the same lines and columns.
In a complete connection structure, all elements ex. All elements of the tree nodes can be processors or only leaves are processors and the rest of nodes are linking elements, which intermediate in transmissions.
If from one node, 2 or more connections go to different nodes towards the leaves - we say about a binary or k-nary tree. If from one node, more than one connection goes to the neighboring node, we speak about a fat tree. A binary tree, in which in the direction of the root, the number of connections between neighboring nodes increases twice, provides a uniform transmission throughput between the tree levels, a feature not available in a standard tree. The hypercube structure is very advantageous since it provides a low network diameter equal to the degree of the cube.
The network diameter is the number of edges between the most distant nodes.
Advanced Computer Architecture (PDF lecture notes)
The network diameter determines the number in intermediate By - Aniket Sugandhi Page no: 14 Follow us on facebook to get instant updates: fb. In this respect the hypercubes have very good properties, especially for a very large number of constituent nodes.
Due to this hypercubes are popular networks in existing parallel systems. Dynamic interconnection networks Dynamic interconnection networks between processors enable changing reconfiguring of the connection structure in a system.
It can be done before or during parallel program execution. So, we can speak about static or dynamic connection reconfiguration. The dynamic networks are those networks where the route through which data move from one PE to another is established at the time communication has to be performed. Usually all processing elements are equidistant and an interconnection path is established when two processing element want to communicate by use of switches. Such systems are more difficult to expand as compared to static network.
Examples: Bus- based, Crossbar, Multistage Networks. Here the Routing is done by comparing the bit-level representation of source and destination addresses. If there is a match goes to next stage via pass- through else in case of it mismatch goes via cross-over using the switch. Mathematical Methods Mathematical Methods for Numerical Analysis and Optimization Mathematical Modeling and Simulation 7.
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There are 3 tasks. They are Have good scheduling of code Determine which loop might contain parallelism Eliminate name dependence 8. Define dependence analysis algorithm. Dependence analysis algorithm is algorithm used to detect the dependence by the compiler based on the assumptions that Array indices are affine There exist GCD of the two affine indices 9. What is copy propagation? Copy propagation is the algebraic simplifications of expressions and an optimization which eliminates operation that copy values.
What is tree-height reduction technique? Tree-height reduction is optimization which reduces the height of the tree structure representing a computation, making it wider but shorter. What are the components of software pipeline loop? A software pipeline loop consists of a loop body, start- up code and clean-up code. Start up code is to execute code left out from the first original loop iterations.
Finish code to execute instructions from the last original iterations. What is trace scheduling? Trace scheduling is way to organize the process of global code motion it simplifies instruction scheduling by incuring the cost of possible code motion on the less critical paths.
List out steps used for trace scheduling. Trace selection.Few books have had as significant an impact on the way their discipline is taught, and the current edi- tion will ensure its place at the top for some time to come. Business Systems IP Multimedia Subsystems 2. Trace selection. Homework 4. Russian literature 2. Cognitive Development
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