International business: competing in the global marketplace/Charles W. L. Hill. Charles W. L. Hill is the Hughes M. Blake Professor of International Business at. International Business PDF eBook, Global Edition by John Daniels, Lee Radebaugh, Daniel Sullivan. Full file at Test-Bank International Business: Environments and Operations, 16e (Daniels et al.) and multicultural work environments 1 Copyright © Pearson Education.

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Alan M. Rugman is Professor of International Business and L. Leslie Waters .. and troubleshooting For more information please contact your local Pearson. PDF | This book presents international business in a comprehensive yet The Challenges of Globalization, Canadian Edition, Pearson. Lecturer at Brandeis University, International Business School in Boston, US Currently teaching courses in international business, global strategy and Rugman, A & Collinson, S , International business, Pearson Education, Harlow. Available from:

Terrorism not only affects civilians, but it also damages corporations and other businesses. These effects may include: physical vandalism or destruction of property , sales declining due to frightened consumers and governments issuing public safety restrictions.

Firms engaging in international business will find it difficult to operate in a country that has an uncertain assurance of safety from these attacks. This is considered to an unethical form of practicing business and can have legal repercussions.

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Firm that want to operate legally should instruct employees to not involve themselves or the company in such activities. Factors towards globalization[ edit ] There has been growth in globalization in recent decades due to the following factors.

This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. Governments are removing international business restrictions. Consumers want to know about foreign goods and services. Political relationships have improved among some major economic powers. Importance of international business education[ edit ] Most companies are either international companies or compete with other international companies.

Modes of operation may differ from those used domestically. The best way of conducting business may differ by country.

An understanding helps one make better career decisions. An understanding helps one decide what governmental policies to support. Managers in international business must understand social science disciplines and how they affect different functional business fields. To maintain and achieve successful business operations in foreign nations, persons must understand how variations in culture and traditions across nations affect business practices.

This idea is known as cultural literacy. Without knowledge of a host country's culture, corporate strategizing is more difficult and error-prone when entering foreign markets compared with the home country's market and culture.

This can create a "blind spot" during the decision making process and result in ethnocentrism. Education about international business introduces the student to new concepts that can be applicable in international strategy in topics such as marketing and operations.

Importance of language and cultural studies[ edit ] A considerable advantage in international business is gained through the knowledge and use of language, thereby mitigating a language barrier. Advantages of being an international businessperson who is fluent in the local language include the following: Having the ability to directly communicate with employees and customers Understanding the manner of speaking within business in the local area to improve overall productivity Gaining respect of customers and employees from speaking with them in their native tongue In many cases, it plays a crucial role.

It is truly impossible to gain an understanding of a culture's downloading habits without first taking the time to understand the culture. Examples of the benefit of understanding local culture include the following: Being able to provide marketing techniques that are specifically tailored to the local market Knowing how other businesses operate and what might or might not be social taboos Understanding the time structure of an area.

Some societies are more focused on timeliness " being on time " while others focus on doing business at " the right time ". Associating with people who do not know several languages. Language barriers can affect transaction costs.

Linguistic distance is defined as the amount of variation one language has from another. For example, French, and Spanish are both languages derived from Latin.

When evaluating dialogue in these languages, you will discover many similarities. However, languages such as English and Chinese or English and Arabic vary much more strongly and contain far fewer similarities.

The writing systems of these languages are also different.

The larger the linguistic distance there, the wider language barriers to cross. These differences can reflect on transaction costs and make foreign business operations more expensive.

Importance of studying international business[ edit ] The international business standards focus on the following: raising awareness of the inter-relatedness of one country's political policies and economic practices on another; learning to improve international business relations through appropriate communication strategies; understanding the global business environment—that is, the interconnections of cultural, political, legal, economic, and ethical systems; exploring basic concepts underlying international finance , management , marketing , and trade relations; and identifying forms of business ownership and international business opportunities.

C Diff: Concept Objective: Diverse and multicultural work environments 2 Which of the following is NOT true about cultural diversity? A Companies may gain competitive advantages by bringing together people of diverse backgrounds. B Cultural diversity is most successful when domestic and foreign firms establish joint ventures. C Cultural diversity may help a company gain deeper knowledge about products and services.

D The process of bringing people of different national cultures together is often difficult.

B Diff: Explain how differences in culture affect the international business environment Skill: A power distance B culture shock C cultural collision D group membership Answer: A A company implements practices that are less effective than intended.

B Local employees are overlooked for promotions by home country managers. C Expatriate managers rely too heavily on local employees for negotiating business deals. D Foreign and domestic companies make adjustments for the local culture and legal environment. A Diff: Application Objective: Diverse and multicultural work environments 5 Which of the following is the MOST accurate statement about culture?

A Cultural variables can easily be isolated from other factors such as economic and political conditions. B Although most cultural variables are universal, the forms these variables take differ from culture to culture.

International Business, 13th Edition

C Most cultural variables are superficial and can easily be influenced by environmental factors. D Within a culture, everyone responds to particular cultural variables the same way. Diverse and multicultural work environments 6 Businesspeople seeking to understand more about another culture in order to successfully conduct business within that culture would be best advised to do which of the following?

A observe the behavior of people who have gained respect within that cultural environment B rely on stereotypes, which are based on averages, to gain an understanding of the culture C avoid cultural research studies because they perpetuate unjustified stereotypes and behaviors D memorize the cultural variations that are typically encountered in a specific cultural environment Answer: A Cultures are static, which leads researchers to draw false conclusions from old data.

B It is impossible to compare countries because of differences in data. C Responses are reported in averages, which can lead to a belief in unrealistic stereotypes. D People are reluctant to complain about their own cultures, so they present only positive opinions to researchers.

Diverse and multicultural work environments 8 Many firms gain a global competitive advantage by fostering cultural diversity. TRUE Diff: Diverse and multicultural work environments 9 Most cultural variables are universal. Diverse and multicultural work environments 10 The lack of cultural guidebooks and research specifically for international managers poses a significant problem for global firms.

Diverse and multicultural work environments 12 Most people's basic values are acquired during childhood and are not readily changed later in life.

Diverse and multicultural work environments 13 The specific learned norms based on attitudes, values, and beliefs of a group of people are known as ethnology. Diverse and multicultural work environments 14 Similarity among people is both a cause and effect of national boundaries. Diverse and multicultural work environments 15 Cultures do not transcend national state boundaries.

The nation, as opposed to the State, provides a workable definition of a culture for international business because basic similarity among people is both a cause and an effect of national boundaries. The laws governing business operations also apply primarily along national lines.

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Within the bounds of a nation are people who largely share essential attributes, such as values, language, and race. However, these shared attributes do not mean that everyone in a country is alike, nor do they suggest that each country is unique in all respects. Critical Thinking Objective: A understand each other's culture before dealing with the tasks at hand B jump into the task allowing the team members to react and adapt to each other C deal with fellow team members as they would in their own culture D establish strict rules on how the task will be performed Answer: A a nation contains only one distinct culture B similarity among people is both a cause and effect of national boundaries C the commonality of language within a nation eases the process of conducting surveys D different groups within the same country always have more in common with each other than with groups in other countries Answer: A nations fail to mediate the different interests within their boundaries B self-stereotypes tend to fall along national lines C such an approach tends to be polycentric D variations tend to be great within a country state Answer: D Diff: Diverse and multicultural work environments 20 Certain attitudes can link groups, such as managers, from different nations more closely than managers within a given nation.

A assume that there are few significant cultural differences among nations B examine relevant groups when comparing nations C adopt universal operating methods D avoid cultural imperialism Answer: A work attitudes; occupations B lifestyles; education level C education level; ethnicity D values; language Answer: A modified significantly between childhood and adulthood B altered during adulthood through imposition C affected primarily by teenage peer pressure D acquired mainly during early childhood Answer: Diverse and multicultural work environments 23 Which of the following is a reason for global companies to NOT take religious beliefs into account?

A Religion has an impact on almost every business function. B A company could get in trouble with local religious authorities. D Religion may influence consumer behavior. A cultural collision B cultural imperialism C cultural diffusion D polycentrism Answer: A government efforts to maintain a distinct cultural identity through legislation and language B the process of mixing elements of an outside culture with those of a national culture C the use of stereotypes to describe a culture D changes as cultures evolve over time Answer: A multicultural ethnocentrism B cultural imperialism C collectivism D high-context Answer: Diverse and multicultural work environments 29 Which of the following statements about the English language is most likely NOT true?

A The largest portion of global output is in English-speaking countries. C English is the official national language in most countries where FDI is encouraged. A it is less frequently used than French in international business B there is a growing disagreement over which version of English to use, e. British, American, or Australian C companies headquartered outside English-speaking countries all use their official language as their operating language D monolingual English speakers may experience more difficulty in the future in communicating on a worldwide basis Answer: A cultural diffusion is a two-way process B cultural trends come from emerging nations C existing national borders are shifting D material cultures are becoming universal Answer: Diverse and multicultural work environments 32 American hamburgers, Japanese sushi, Italian pizza, Mexican tacos, and Middle Eastern pita bread are now commonly found in most countries.

A although visible expressions of culture are becoming homogenized, basic differences in societal values remain strong B globalization fulfills lower order needs in Maslow's hierarchy C cultural imperialism is increasingly widespread D cultural hybridization is occurring Answer: A people in the port cities have more contact with foreigners B the coastal area has to trade with countries using different religious holidays C the coastal area has a culture with a higher uncertainty avoidance D the coastal area is secular, whereas the interior of Saudi Arabia has a state religion Answer: Diverse and multicultural work environments 34 Cultural change may come by choice or imposition.

Diverse and multicultural work environments 35 Creolization refers to the mixing of cultural elements that occurs during cultural diffusion. Diverse and multicultural work environments 36 English-speaking peoples account for a larger portion of global output than people who speak any other language.

Diverse and multicultural work environments 37 Change agents intentionally cause or accelerate social and cultural change. How do such cultural differences affect business practices for international firms? Cultures such as those in Northern Europe are called monochronic. People prefer to work sequentially, such as finishing with one customer before dealing with another.

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Conversely, polychronic Southern Europeans are more comfortable working simultaneously with all the tasks they face. Such cultural differences affect the degree of multitasking with which people are comfortable.

International companies and individuals must evaluate their business and personal practices to ensure that their behavior may fit with the culture. Synthesis Objective: A such systems reflect a culture's willingness to accept new products B such systems indicate who people in a given culture will likely respect more C the high similarity among countries lets firms effectively use global hiring practices D what is an ascribed group membership in one country is an acquired one in another Answer: A acquired B age-based C education D ascribed Answer: A a desire to convert productivity gains into more leisure time B an adherence to some attributes that lead to economic growth C the belief that material success is related to salvation D the degree of ethnocentrism exhibited in a culture Answer: Diverse and multicultural work environments 42 Which of the following is an example of an acquired group membership?

A national origin B religion C gender D race Answer: A high; high B high; low C low; high D low; low Answer: A power distance B fatalism C individualism D self-actualization Answer: Diverse and multicultural work environments 47 Which of the following is characterized by low dependence on an organization and a desire for personal time, freedom, and challenges? A collectivism B democracy C individualism D anarchy Answer: Which of the following would most likely motivate the firm's Japanese employees?

A "employee-of-the-month" programs B extensive vacation time C on-the-job challenges D good health benefits Answer: A individualists; collectivists B collectivists; individualists C non-fatalists; fatalists D materialists; non-materialists Answer: A the company has a philosophy of geocentrism B the society believes age equals wisdom C uncertainty avoidance is high D power distance is low Answer: Discuss the role of ethics and social responsibility in international business Skill: A people tend to be more future-oriented B business costs are typically lower C people tend to be more fatalistic D family businesses are dominant Answer: A low uncertainty avoidance B high future orientation C low masculinity D high power distance Answer: Diverse and multicultural work environments 53 Raj, an engineer, works long hours and takes full responsibility for both his good and bad work performance.

A self-determination B low power distance C collectivism D fatalism Answer: A pragmatic B idealistic C fatalistic D high-context Answer: Diverse and multicultural work environments 55 A culture in which people prefer to finish one task before starting another is most accurately characterized as which of the following?When managers from the two types of cultures deal with each other, the low-context individuals may believe the high-context ones are inefficient and time-wasters.

For undergraduate and graduate International Business courses An effective balance between authoritative theory and meaningful practice. How do such cultural differences affect business practices for international firms?

A firm's reputation can change if it operates in a country controlled by that type of government. It will help you know where and how to look for information, and how to make the most of what is already known in your subject so that you can write and speak more authoritatively.

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