Journal for Research| Volume 01| Issue 08 | October ISSN: Four Quadrant Speed Control of DC Motor with the Help of AT89S52 Microcontroller. PDF | On Oct 1, , Vinod S. Patil and others published Four quadrant Download full-text PDF Keywords—DC Motor,Chopper control,,speed control, four .. depending on the sampling frequency of the microcontroller. Abstract In this paper a four quadrant speed control system for DC motor has been designed, constructed and tested. The main advantage in using a DC.

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The main aim to design this paper is to develop a four quadrant speed control of a DC motor with the help of the microcontroller. The most important part of any. DC Motor speed control is carried out by use of Four Quadrant Chopper drive. Microcontroller - Download as circuit or the completed without a control system. The adjustable speed drive provides control of a series motor in four modes; forward motoring, forward approach was taken, with a microcontroller forming the heart of the design. Most of the as a free download from the internet. Mikrobasic pdf>.

The desired speed can be obtained by changing the duty cycle. The PWM pulses generated from the microcontroller are viewed for various duty cycles in the simulation done in proteous software. Motor drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a lowcurrent control signal and provide a higher-current signal. This higher current signal is used to drive the motors. LD contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver circuits. In its common mode of operation, two DC motors can be driven simultaneously, both in forward and reverse direction.

Input logic 00 or 11 will stop the corresponding motor. Logic 01 and 10 will rotate it in clockwise and anticlockwise directions, respectively.

Cascade control of DC brushed motor

Enable pins 1 and 9 corresponding to the two motors must be high for motors to start operating. When an enable input is high, the associated driver gets enabled. As a result, the outputs become active and work in phase with their inputs. Similarly, when the enable input is low, that driver is disabled, and their outputs are off and in the highimpedance state.

Proteus: It has been used to simulate the result in software. Positron Boot Loader: It has been used to burn Hex code into microcontroller The overall block of the system is implemented in the proteous software and the response and the operation of the motor is viewed as in figure 3.

It is the easiest way to check whether the hardware will get the desired output. The changes can be made to get the desired output and the operation can be carried out accordingly.

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Here seven switches are interfaced to MC to control the speed of motor in four quadrants. When start switch is pressed the motor starts rotating in full speed being driven by a motor driver IC LD that receives control signal continuously from the microcontroller.

When clockwise switch is pressed the motor rotates in forward direction as per the logic provided by the program from the microcontroller to the motor driver IC.

While forward brake is pressed a reverse voltage is applied to the motor by the motor driver IC by sensing reverse logic sent by the microcontroller for a short time period due to and reverse brake switch is pressed the microcontroller delivers a logic to the motor driver IC that develops for very small time a reverse voltage across the running motor due to which instantaneous brake situation happens to the motor.

PWM switch is used to rotate the motor at varying speed by delivering from the microcontroller a varying duty cycle to the enable pin of the motor driver IC. Stop button is used to switch OFF the motor by driving the enable pin to ground from the microcontroller command accordingly.

Four Quadrant DC Motor Control Without Microcontroller

The hardware is designed and the operation has been done based upon the program written in the microcontroller for the four quadrant operation of the DC motor and the speed is also controlled by using PWM technique which instantaneous brake situation is applied to the motor. All rights reserved by 14 5 Fig.

Waveform Of Reverse Braking Of Dc Motor All rights reserved by 16 7 Hardware Implementation: The hardware model has been designed and implemented for speed control of dc motor using AT89S52 microcontroller and the waveform of input pulse given to dc motor from pin of microcontroller has been observed on digital CRO.

And the waveforms for four quadrant modes of operations are achieved for different duty cycle achieved. Waveform of Forward Braking Fig. As the width of pulse varies, average voltage applied to motor varies and so the speed of dc motor also varies. Push Button switches are provided to control the speed of the dc motor. A simulated model has been developed by proteus software and then result has been verified using a prototype hardware model.

Four Quadrant DC Motor Speed Control using 8051 Microcontroller

The main reason converting C language into hex file is that microcontroller only understand binary form and hex file is in binary form which hard for engineer to understand and on other hand C language is easy to understand by engineer but microcontroller cannot understand C language so it needs to be converted into binary form which is called hex file.

This software is used to receive data like digital format current sensor values, digital format potentiometer voltage value, PDC1 and PDC2 register value and rpm value which is used by microcontroller to calculate speed while C program is running.

This data is send by transmit interrupt function in C language code. The use of LABVIEW is to send data like duty cycle in open loop , current demand while checking working current loop and speed demand while check speed loop. This data is send by receive interrupt function in C language code. This allows to see whether or not DC motor and digital cascade control is working properly. By simulation DC motor model, the behaviour and working of DC motor can be analysed in order to implement digital cascade control.

By simulation of H-bridge, unipolar PWM switching technique can be understood and analysed. By simulation current control, kp proportional gain and ki integral gain for PI controller in current loop can found and can be checked whether or not actual current does not exceed demand current in any condition.

By simulation of speed loop, kp proportional gain and ki integral gain for PI controller in speed loop can found and error in actual and demand speed can be found. Project Stage s This project is divided into seven major steps in order to monitor and record the progress of project.

These steps are made to build and experiment the control system. Calibrate the output from the tacho-generator against the speed. The voltage source provides electrical power while mechanical output power is rotation of rotor due attraction and repletion of stator magnetic field and armature magnetic field generated by rotor winding. A permanent magnet DC motor mainly consists of two components stator and rotor. The phenomenon of opposing and attracting forces of the stator magnetic field and rotor magnetic field make armature rotor to rotate.

Another way to analyse the reason for rotation of armature is that as electric current following through armature coil create armature magnetic field and the polarity of electric current or direction of current flow is changed constantly by commutator to make always make armature magnetic field perpendicular to stator magnetic field to maximise the torque.

Since torque is equal to dot-product of force and length, so torque is maximum when angle is 90 degree. Each rotor coil terminal is connected to a copper segment of commutator. Stationary brushes touch the copper segments and the coil on rotor gets connected to a stationary dc voltage supply by a near frictionless contact. This EMF is induced voltage which is generated by rotating armature coils in permanent magnet fixed flux lines.

So the equation in transient state becomes illustration not visible in this excerpt In steady state Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthaltenia becomes zero, so the above equation reduces to illustration not visible in this excerpt Therefore, armature current ia equal to illustration not visible in this excerpt and Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthaltenia is equal to illustration not visible in this excerpt Mechanical Characteristics By performing an energy balance on PMDC motor system or in other words, as we know energy is neither created nor destroyed but changed from one form to other.

So state space diagram of PMDC motor is shown in fig The Figure shows the graph of terminal voltage, armature current and rotor speed verses time.

In this figure show that current increases rapidly to reach value almost equal to maximum armature current value which is equal to 3. So therefore EMF is also zero and hence current which equal to difference between terminal voltage and EMF divided by armature resistance increase rapidly. As DC motor starts rotating, back EMF is generated and as time passes EMF value becomes equal to terminal voltage, thus the difference between back EMF and terminal voltage become zero and hence armature current becomes zero and at that moment the rotor speed reaches it maximum value.

The project circuit diagram for four quadrant DC motor speed control with microcontroller is shown in the below figure. In these cases, the DC motor can be controlled using this method. The microcontroller block is interfaced with DC motor using motor driver IC, the power supply block provides power supply to the project kit, and switch array.

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This switch array is used to send the control signals to the microcontroller which in turn sends commands to the motor driver IC for controlling the operation of the DC motor. Fan Speed Controller The fan speed controller is nothing but controlling the speed of a single phase motor as ceiling fans are made of single phase induction motors which are usually capacitor-start and capacitor-run type.

In this project, a TV remote with Thyristor power control technique is used for controlling the speed of single phase motor.

Hence, normal TV remote acts as a fan speed controller. The fan speed controller project circuit is shown in the below figure in which single phase motor of fan is replaced by lamp bulb for demonstration purpose.This technique works effectively when inner loop response is ten times faster than outer loop.

This paper is designed to develop a four quadrant speed control system for a DC motor using microcontroller. Noor, S.

PWM is one of the powerful techniques used in control systems today. Rangdal1, Prof. Janice Gillispie Mazidi. This EMF is induced voltage which is generated by rotating armature coils in permanent magnet fixed flux lines. Since DC motor can be assumes RL load, when armature voltage is 24 DC volt, the inductor store the current and current graph increases exponentially and when armature voltage is 0 DC volt, inductor acts like current source gives away the stored current and current graph decreases exponentially as shown in figure

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