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Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching by Jack C. Richards and. Theodore . classroom techniques and practices; others are described in books that. Approaches and Methods Language Teaching CAMBRIDGE LANGUAGE TEACHING A catalog record for this book is available from the British Library. This new edition surveys the major approaches and methods in language teaching. This new edition is an extensive revision of the first edition of this successful.
Since the first edition was pub- lished, it has become one of the most widely referred to books on teach- ing methods. Since then, however, a great deal has happened in language teaching.
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In planning this new edition, we have therefore made a number of substantial changes. We have divided the book into three main parts: Part I deals with major trends in twentieth-century language teaching. The chapters in this section are substantially the same as those in the first edition but include an updated list of references.
Part II deals with alternative approaches and methods. This section describes approaches and methods that have attracted support at different times and in different places throughout the last 30 or so years, but have generally not been widely accepted or, in some cases, have not maintained substantial followings.
Addi- tional and more recent references have been added to these chapters. Because these methods are no longer widely used, a shorter treatment seemed appropriate.
Readers requiring fuller discussion of these methods should consult the first edition. Although these latter approaches share some features with communicative ap- proaches in Part III, we feel that they are sufficiently distinct to be grouped with the other approaches discussed in Part II.
Part III deals with current communicative approaches. New material has been added to the final sections of the chapter on Communicative Language Teaching, and addi- tional references have been added to this chapter and to the one on the Natural Approach.
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Rodgers Frontmatter More information Preface The history of language teaching has been characterized by a search for more effective ways of teaching second or foreign languages.
For more than a hundred years, debate and discussion within the teaching profes- sion have often centered on issues such as the role of grammar in the language curriculum, the development of accuracy and fluency in teach- ing, the choice of syllabus frameworks in course design, the role of vocab- ulary in language learning, teaching productive and receptive skills, learn- ing theories and their application in teaching, memorization and learning, motivating learners, effective learning strategies, techniques for teaching the four skills, and the role of materials and technology.
Al- though much has been done to clarify these and other important ques- tions in language teaching, the teaching profession is continually explor- ing new options for addressing these and other basic issues and the effectiveness of different instructional strategies and methods in the classroom.
The teaching of any subject matter is usually based on an analysis of the nature of the subject itself and the application of teaching and learn- ing principles drawn from research and theory in educational psychology.
The result is generally referred to as a teaching method or approach, by which we refer to a set of core teaching and learning principles together with a body of classroom practices that are derived from them.
The same is true in language teaching, and the field of teaching methods has been a very active one in language teaching since the s. New approaches and methods proliferated throughout the twentieth century. Some achieved wide levels of acceptance and popularity at different times but were then were replaced by methods based on newer or more appealing ideas and theories.
ISBN 13: 9780521312554
Some, such as Com- municative Language Teaching, were adopted almost universally and achieved the status of methodological orthodoxy. Methods appear to be based on very different views of what language is and how a language is learned.
Some methods recommend apparently strange and unfamiliar classroom techniques and practices; others are described in books that are hard to locate, obscurely written, and difficult to understand.
Above all, the practitioner is often bewildered by the lack of any comprehensive theory of what an approach and method are.
This book was written in response to this situation, It is an attempt to depict, organize, and analyze major and minor approaches and methods in language teaching, and to describe their underlying nature. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching is designed to provide a detailed account of major twentieth-century trends in language teaching. To highlight the similarities and differences between approaches and methods, the same descriptive framework is used throughout.
This model is presented in Chapter 2 and is used in subsequent chapters. It describes approaches and methods according to their underlying theories of language and language learning; the learning objectives; the syllabus model used; the roles of teachers, learners, and materials within the method or approach; and the classroom procedures and techniques that the method uses.
Where a method or apptoach has extensive and acknowledged links to a particular tradition in second or foreign language tcaching, this historical background is treated in the first section of the chapter.
In I'hcsc cases the method is considered in I'crlllS Preface of its links to more general linguistic, psychological, or educational traditions. Within each chapter, our aim has been to present an objective and comprehensive picture of a particular approach or method. We have avoided personal evaluation, preferring to let the method speak for Itself and allow readers to make their own appraisals.
The book is not intended to popularize or promote particular approaches or methods, nor is it an attempt to train teachers in the use of the dIfferent methods descrIbed. Rather it is designed to give the teacher or teacher tramee a straIghtforward introduction to commonly used and less commonly used methods, and a set of criteria by which to critically read, question, and observe methods.
In the final chapter we examine methods from a broader framework and present a curriculum-development perspective on methodology.
Limitations of method claims are discussed, and the need for evaluation and research is emphasized. We hope that rhe analYSIS of approaches and methods presented here will elevate the level of discussion found in the methods literature, which sometimes has a polemIcal and promotional quality.
Our goal is to enable teachers to become better informed about the nature, strengths, and weaknesses of methods and approaches so they can better arrive at their own judgments and decisions. Portions of Chapter 2 are based on Jack C.
'Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching' - Richards, Rodgers
We would like to acknowledge especially the editorial skills of our editor, Sandra Graham of Cambrtdge UllIvcrslty Press. From this historical perspective we are also able to see that the concerns that have prompted modern method innovations were similar to those that have always been at the center of discussions on how to teach foreign languages.
Changes in language reaching methods throughout history have reflected recognition of changes in the kind of proficiency learners need, such as a move toward oral proficiency rather than reading comprehenSIon as the goal of language study; they have also reflected changes I theones of the nature of language and of language learning.
Kelly and Howatt have demonstrated that many current issues ill hnguage teaching are not particularly new. Today's controversies rellect contemporary responses to questions that have been asked often I hl'OughoU!
Whereas today 1 1I '. In the 1. IS :l re'. Once basic proficiency was established, students were introduced to the advanced study of grammar and rhetoric.
School learning must.Start by pressing the button below! Limitations of method claims are discussed, and the need for evaluation and research is emphasized. We have avoided personal evaluation, preferring to let the method speak for itself and allow readers to make their own appraisals.
The chapters in this section are substantially the same as those in the first edition but include an updated list of references. Some methods recommend apparently strange and unfamiliar classroom techniques and practices; others are described in books that are hard to locate, obscurely written, and difficult to understand. Part II deals with alternative approaches and methods.
To some, this reflects the strength of our profession. This third edition of Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching is an extensive revision of the popular and accessible text.
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