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Com MB , Tadm10 2 sap netweaver as implementation and. The Principle of Asynchronous Updates The updating system is a technology which allows SAP transactions to off-load time-intensive database changes. These are then carried out asynchronously in special update work processes.
It also circumvents the roll-back problems caused by the difference in the conception of the logical unit of work LUW in an SAP transaction and in the database. If, during a dialog work process, data temporarily stored for processing is passed to an update work process for further processing, the dialog work process does not wait for the update request to be completed: Here, each dialog step corresponds to a database transaction which is executed either completely or not at all in the database and there completed with a COMMIT command.
The update part of the SAP transaction is executed in one database transaction. It is only then that the data is copied to the application tables. The Asynchronous Update Process If users want to change a data record in an SAP transaction, they call the corresponding transaction in the dialog, make the appropriate entries on the screens and then initiate the update process by saving the data.
This process triggers the following steps: The program locks the data record for other users. The program does this by addressing the enqueue work process using the message server if appropriate.
The enqueue work process makes the relevant entry in the lock table or if another user has already locked the data informs the user that the data record cannot currently be changed. If the enqueue work process succeeded in writing the lock entry to the lock table, it passes the lock key it created to the user, the program reads the record to be changed from the database and the user can change the record on the screen image of the SAP transaction.
They act as temporary memory and store the data to be changed until it can be collected and written to the application tables in the database in a single database transaction. At the end of the dialog part of the transaction for example, when the user saves the data — possibly after completing other dialog steps , the program initiates the close of the transaction with the COMMIT WORK statement.
The work process that is handling the active dialog step completes the update header and triggers an update work process. The lock entries in the lock table are reset. The application developer decides whether and how to use asynchronous updates while programming the transaction.
Besides the asynchronous update, there are some other update techniques for example, synchronous or local. To increase performance further, application developers can conigure different types of updates: They are relevant to objects that have a controlling function in the SAP system, such as a change to the material stock or an order creation.
These are, for example, purely statistical updates such as the calculation of results. The V1 modules for an SAP transaction are processed sequentially in a single update work process. Once it has successfully completed processing, the V1 update work process releases the relevant locks again.
If you have not conigured any V2 update work processes, then the V1 work process handles all updates. All calls of the function modules are then collected, aggregated and updated at once.
In doing so they are handled like V2 update modules. If an error occurs during an update, then processing of the active update component terminates. Users can be notiied automatically by express mail when an update terminates. These entries can be automatically deleted the next time you start the system or they can be deleted manually. The application tables remain unchanged. An asynchronous update may terminate for a variety of reasons. Therefore, the corresponding data record cannot be written to the database table more than once.
When an update terminates, the system sends an express mail to the user who triggered the update. Any additional steps must be carried out by the system administrator. Transaction SM13 update requests provides system administrators with analysis tools to handle terminated updates.
Once the error that caused the termination has been corrected for example, hardware damage repaired , the end user should restart the processing.
Printing SAP systems provide a wide variety of options for representing business and other data. This data, created and formatted in a dialog step, can then be sent to printers and other output interfaces fax, e-mail, and so on. A printer must irst be set up in the system before it can be addressed. A standard printer is usually set as default in your user proile. Once a printer has been set up, the SAP system has all the information it needs to be able to create a spool request.
The spool request generated is stored in the TemSe temporary sequential ile. Spool requests can be created by dialog work processes or by background work processes. Spool work processes do not create spool requests. The output request contains all data in an appropriate format for the printer. This data can either be passed on to an appropriate operating system spool process locally on the same computer or remotely over a network connection.
In an SAP system, the connection between a spool work process and the operating system spool process is known as the access method. There are more access methods than displayed above.
These are the two most commonly used access methods for connecting printers to SAP systems. For print processing, the best performance is achieved by sending the data to be printed to the operating system as soon as possible. You do this using the local access method. The operating system then performs all remaining tasks, such as queuing and data transfer to the selected printer.
One minor but indispensable requirement for printing from SAP systems is that each selectable printer allows printing at operating system level.
In background processing, you instruct the SAP system to run programs for you. You can use background processing to execute long-running or resource intensive programs at off peak times. You can use it to assign the system the task to execute reports and programs.
There is no strain on your dialog resources and reports running in the background are not subject to the runtime restrictions of dialog processing termination of the program after a runtime of ten minutes. The segregation of background processing to special work processes gives you an additional dimension for separating background processing and interactive work. For example, the system is used interactively during the day and background processing takes place at night.
You can use background work processes to separate background processing and interactive work also by servers because background jobs are only executed on servers that offer background processing. Scheduling Background Tasks Jobs The end user can usually schedule the program to be started in the background as a job from the application transaction. If the time has come and free background work processes are available, the job is distributed to a background work process by the background scheduler and then executed.
Users can display the result in the application transaction or, in case of list generating programs, look at the spool request belonging to the job see Printing section. This is used for the communication between work processes of different instances or SAP systems as well as work processes and external programs. The gateway reader usually just called gateway is the main process of the gateway system.
The dispatcher starts it and checks it periodically. If a dialog work process has to establish an RFC connection to a remote system in the context of a request, for example, to fetch customer data, it uses the gateway, which then takes care of the communication with the remote system.
The gateway forwards the request to the gateway of the remote system. The remote gateway transfers the request to the dispatcher. Inbound RFC connection are therefore always received by the gateway. Outbound connections are initiated by the work process.
Processing a Web Request If the request is directed at AS Java, it is sent to the Java dispatcher 2b , which then forwards it to a Java server process 3b. The Java server process then refers to the database's Java schema, if applicable, and uses the Java dispatcher process to send the response back to the ICM. The work process that processes the enquiry now communicates directly with the ICM 4a. The ICM returns the response to the user who sent the request 5. Web Dynpro is an ideal solution if your major priority is a browser-based interface for traditional ERP applications.
Web Dynpro-based applications are called via ICM. Often, SAP customers already have tools for creating attractive corporate websites. Dialog Processing Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: Business Example You want to gain an overview of the conigured work processes and their current status. Overview of the conigured work processes Use transaction SM50 to answer the following questions menu path: How many dialog work processes are there on the instance that you are logged on to?
Choose Refresh several times in the process overview. Are your queries always processed by the same work process? Dialog Processing Task: Transaction SM50 displays the work processes on the instance you are currently logged onto. If you want to display the work processes for the entire SAP system, choose transaction SM66 in this case you need to make the appropriate settings using the Select process and Settings buttons. You may ind — although you might not — that your queries are processed by different work processes.
Lock Management Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: Change your own user data.
Open a new modus and check the list of lock entries to determine on which tables a lock has been set. In another modus, try changing your own user data again. End the modus that displays your user data ready for change. What happens to the lock entries?
Lock Management Task: Your user data is now exclusively locked for you at SAP system level. Choose Enter without changing the default values. You see a lock entry held by your user for your data record in table USR The system returns an information message that the requested data is already in change access by another user in this case: Usually, data locked can still be viewed for reading purposes.
Select your user with the mouse and choose the Sessions pushbutton. If an action terminates in an SAP system whether deliberately or not , the locks held by it are deleted. Update Processing Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: Call transaction SM13 Name of function: If you come across a defective update record, display the short dump for it.
Update Processing Task: Choose Execute F8.
If one record or more has the status error, then select it by double-click. On the next screen, again use double-click on the entry.
This displays a dialog box, in which you select ABAP short dump button with list icon. Analyze the short dump don't spend more than 2 minutes on this task. Printing Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: Printing a Simple List Print out the list of work processes.
Call transaction SM50 and print the list. Display your own spool requests and generate an output request from the spool request.
Printing Task: Check the status and the number of pages of your spool request. Background Processing Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: Business Example As system administrator or end user, you need to schedule the execution of a report in the background. Scheduling and Monitoring Jobs Differentiate between executing a report in dialog mode and executing it in background mode; schedule the execution of a simple job.
Display the result of the job. Background Processing Task: The users who are logged on are listed. You can also choose Schedule. In this case, make sure that the Job Name and Execution Time are entered.
The execution time should not be too far in the future about 2 minutes, for example so that you can see the result of the job as soon as possible. Then choose Schedule Once. You should see the job you just scheduled in the displayed list. If the job is in status released, wait until the execution time you selected has passed. If the job is in status complete, it was completed successfully and you can display the result in the form of a spool list. In the next screen, select the spool request and choose Display Contents F6.
You will see a list of users logged at the time the job was executed. Fundamental Concepts of Java Lesson Overview This lesson provides a short overview of the fundamental Java concepts for all participants that have not yet been confronted with Java. The architectural concept and the properties of Java are briely outlined. You should therefore familiarize yourself with the fundamental concepts of the Java environment. Introduction If you search for the meaning of the word Java in an encyclopedia, you ind the following deinitions, among other things: It would undoubtedly be worthwhile to investigate each of these deinitions individually in more detail.
In this course, we want to concentrate exclusively on the second deinition in this list. The Java programming language was irst introduced by the company Sun Microsystems Inc. Java is an object-oriented and platform-independent programming language that is widely used in many areas. Java was designed to be platform-independent. In particular, Java applications can run on different systems that are based on different hardware. It usually means a Java applet, a small computer program that runs in a Web browser and is written in the Java programming language.
Java applets are intended for execution within the Java Runtime Environment of a browser. They are transferred as is also the case, for example, with embedded images with the HTML page using the HTTP protocol, and then executed on the client computer.
Special security guidelines apply to Java applets; that is, they are not permitted to perform everything on the client that locally-installed programs are permitted to.
Initially, Java is a programming language like any other. Unlike traditional compilers for a programming language, which generate machine code for a speciic platform see the Compiled Programming Languages igure , the Java compiler produces program code for a virtual machine the Java Virtual Machine. This program code is known as bytecode. A virtual machine is a model of a processor which often does not exist as real hardware and the associated system architecture.
It is a computer program that emulates a processor. The virtual machine is therefore viewed as the interface between Java and the actual hardware. It must be developed speciically for each processor architecture and, as such, is the only platform-dependent component of a Java development system see the igure Concept of the Java Virtual Machine.
Compiled Programming Languages Hint: NET architecture. The concept of the virtual machine was already in use in the late s; Martin Richards' O code for the BCPL programming language is an early example. Better-known examples are the Pascal P code system UCSD Pascal from the s, and the virtual machine on which programs in the Smalltalk programming language run. The bytecode generated by the Java compiler is comparable to microprocessor code for a conceived processor, which understands instructions such as arithmetic operations, gotos, and so on.
This bytecode then is interpreted by the runtime environment also known as the runtime interpreter , the Java Virtual Machine. In this way, Java is a compiled, but also an interpreted programming language. Concept of the Java Virtual Machine The interpretation causes speed problems, since the identiication, decoding, and execution of the commands take time.
A JIT compiler accelerates the execution of the programs by converting the program statements of the virtual machine for the physical machine. There is then a program adjusted for the architecture available in memory, which is executed quickly without interpretation. Even with this technology, the speed is slower than that of C in many cases, but the difference is smaller.
The Java Development Kit includes the software required to create and test Java applications and applets, the packages with the Java classes that are part of the basic coniguration, and the online documentation. Fundamental Concepts of Java applications, the applet viewer for running applets, a Java debugger, and various utilities. Java is a relatively new programming language and is therefore still in development, that is, new versions with extensions and improvements are constantly being released: Since Version 1.
Although this was once outdated it is now being used again in successor versions. A reference implementation is available for PalmPilots. J2RE cannot be used to develop any Java programs. When performing client-server programming, you need a server. In the past, such system's are running with the vendor JVM.
To change a AS Java 6. It show's the old parameters and values and the new parameter with values, so that you can adjust these parameters if necessary. The following SAP Notes can help you with the switch tool: The Java compiler generates a separate ile for each class from the source ile that contains the bytecode for this class. Each Java source ile may only contain one public class.
This bytecode is platform-independent: Tools of the Software Development Kit You can also combine multiple class iles into a compressed archive ile, which then requires less transfer time over the Internet.
They are administered with the program jar Java Archiver ; the call is similar to that of the UNIX program tar tape archiver. It is not usually necessary to extract or unpack archive iles: The Java compiler and the Java Virtual Machine can read and load the class iles directly from the archive iles.
For this purpose, the ile name of the archive ile must be speciied in a deined format. In a similar way to sub program libraries in other programming languages, in Java there are also small Java programs classes with precisely deined conventions for the interfaces that allow reuse in multiple applications applications and applets.
These programs are known as Java Beans. By extending Web servers with the Common Gateway Interface CGI , these can perform simple database accesses and display the results formatted in the browser. However, these technologies are limited in the case of simultaneous accesses from very large numbers of users who expect reliable information and quick response times. Sun provides a solution to these problems in terms of server-side architecture for Internet applications with the Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition J2EE.
Fundamental Concepts of Java created in the Java programming language. Sun wishes to ensure that developments comply with the speciication of the Java 2 Enterprise Edition using compatibility tests for J2EE. The speciication provides a generally-accepted framework for developing distributed, multi-level applications with modular components.
Clearly-deined interfaces between the components and layers are intended to ensure that software components from different vendors are interoperable if they comply with the speciication. They represent modular java program components. The application data is accessed using the database level. These applets are executed in the browser. This technology allows the embedding of Java code and special JSP actions in static content.
This has the advantage that the logic can be implemented independently of the design with this technology. This source code, which corresponds to a Java servlet, is then converted to bytecode by the Java compiler. These containers provide the application components with services in accordance with the J2EE speciication. Examples of these services are transaction management, availability, security, scalability, client connection, and database access.
This means that the developer can concentrate purely on the application logic and does not need to deal with these system functions. The following igure shows an example of the processing of a client request by a J2EE Server.
Fundamental Concepts of Java Figure Processing of a Client Request by a J2EE Server To achieve the aims of quick response times and reliable information, the J2EE application server must also provide scalability and reliability in addition to the functional side.
The J2EE Server must handle clustering and load balancing for this. The architecture of an application server in accordance with the J2EE speciication is similar to the ABAP runtime environment used for SAP solutions, since both are platform-independent, executed in a multi-level architecture, and separate presentation logic and business logic.
The actual processing takes place in the server process, whereby the user who sent the request is usually assigned the same server process again for the next request.
The dispatcher and server processes of AS Java are also called nodes. All processes of AS Java together with the database schema form the Java cluster. This means that an AS Java process consists of many threads and one request can be processed in each thread. Hence, one server process always processes many user requests in parallel.
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To process user requests it is often necessary to read data from the Java schema of the database or to write to it.
To do so, each server process is connected multiple times to the Java schema of the database via a connection pool DB pool. Once processing is complete, the processing result from the server processes is returned to the web browser via the dispatcher. Each server process has its own buffer. Processing a Request The nodes of AS Java are split into different functional modules called managers and services. The managers form the Java Enterprise Runtime.
It is also referred to as kernel. In case of an HTTP requests to the Java dispatcher the Connections Manipulator Manager holds a connection object with information about the client sending the request. The request is then forwarded to one of the processes of this instance by the HTTP provider service using a cluster manager.
The cluster manager of the server process receives the request and forwards it to the HTTP provider service. In theWeb Container Service, the presentation logic of the application is then processed.
If, in the processing of the request, data from the database is required, the JDBC Connector Service is used to establish a connection to the database and the data is requested there. If the same tables contents have already been queried by this server process, the content can be retrieved in the table buffer at application level if buffering is allowed for the table. The response to the web browser using HTTP is then returned in the same way. In the J2EE standard, much of the implementation of the transaction logic is left to the respective database used.
Hence, a transaction at application level often corresponds exactly to one database transaction in the J2EE standard. The following igure illustrates the correlation using a JSP application as the example. When the user saves his entries, the Java transaction is completed immediately and the data is made persistent in a database transaction. A Java transaction thus consists of a database transaction.
Hence, Java application developers have access to various database-independent programming techniques as well as important functions for improved performance and trouble shooting. So if application developers make sure that they implement database-independent database accesses, the application will be portable but will respond semantically different on different database platforms. Lock Management in AS Java If a user wants change access to data, the executing server process requests a lock to do so, the application developer must program this request explicitly.
The application developer uses the interface of the Application Locking Service to request a logical lock. The enqueue server now checks whether a new lock can be generated; that is, whether there is a collision with locks that have already been set.
The following components are part of a Java instance: An instance always runs on one physical server, but there can be multiple instances on one server. An SAP system consists of a database and one or more instances. The Central Services form a special Java instance. They provide the basis of communication and synchronization within a Java cluster.
The central instance is another special instance. This runs on a physical server with the Central Services.
During its installation, the Software Deployment Manager is also installed. Java Cluster Architecture To ensure high-performance when processing Java requests, the SAP system can be scaled using the number of server processes for each instances or using the number of instances.
A Java cluster consists of: It selects a free server process to process the request and creates the connection between the client and the server process. If there is already a connection to the client, the request is forwarded to the server process that is already processing requests for this client.
The individual steps in the processing of a request are outlined in the following igure. Java Cluster Architecture Figure Processing a Request Within the Java dispatcher, the connection request handler receives the very irst request from a client. It initializes a connection object, which is then assigned to this connection. The connection request handler then uses load balancing to determine which server process processes the request.
After the initialization of a connection object, the client is then connected to this connection manager for all following requests. The connection manager selects the required session service such as HTTP on the basis of the request type. The request is then forwarded to the server process by the communication handler. The structure of server processes essentially corresponds to the structure of the Java dispatcher.
The server processes are implemented as multi-threaded servers and can therefore process multiple requests in parallel. The system or application threads take over the processing of the requests.
They consist of the message service and the enqueue service. It represents the infrastructure of data exchange for small quantities of data between the nodes involved.
In the case of load balancing between a large number of Java instances, it also provides the load balancing information for the SAP Web Dispatcher.
It is also used for cluster-wide synchronization. The Central Services are essentially required when a Java cluster is installed. Message Service The message service is a separate program that allows communication between the elements of a Java cluster.
The message service knows all active Java instances. The terms message server and message service are used with the same meaning in the training material. The message service performs the following tasks in the Java cluster: This previously lead to signiicant performance problems, particularly with large clusters.
It manages the lock table in the main memory and receives requests for setting or releasing locks. It uses the tried and tested SAP lock concept. The terms enqueue server and enqueue service are used with the same meaning in the training material.
To be precise, the enqueue server is the program or process that provides the enqueue service.
The enqueue service has the following tasks: The enqueue service processes these requests and manages the lock table with the existing locks. To be able to conigure these managers and services, you should irst understand their signiicance and functions. However, this term should no longer be used, since it does not uniquely identify an SAP product.
On the other hand, the lower levels are not aware of the higher levels and cannot therefore use their functions. This rule is a consequence of the start sequence of the individual modules of the system.
First, the runtime environment is started, then the services are started, and then the applications are started. The components of the higher levels use these APIs to use functions of the lower levels.
The functions of these logical levels and their interaction are described in the following. These core functions are realized by multiple subsystems of the lowest level. These subsystems are called managers. A selection of these managers with a short description is listed below: It conigures the logging routines of the kernel.
Searches for free threads to process inbound requests. If no threads are free, the requests are buffered in a request queue. It stands between an inbound request and the requested resource. Since the client accesses the cluster through the dispatcher, this manager runs only on the dispatcher.
Represents the interface between the server process and the enqueue service. Allows AS Java to store and access data in a relational database. Central location for the registration and removal of loaders and references between them. It updates information about the status of the individual elements of a cluster and the services that are provided by it.
Important settings: Connections between cluster elements are created using this port. Hosts to which the dispatcher attempts to create connections. Three types of J2EE components are deined: Agreements that deine how different components of AS Java work together. They do not provide any runtime functions themselves, but rather are used by services that provide their implementation. They provide names, classes, and objects within AS Java. These objects are created by the system when it loads the library, or when an object is irst requested.
The services that AS Java provides for processing requests are deined and conigured using the services. Service components can access and utilize functions of the runtime environment through the Framework API. They are the most important of these three types of J2EE Components. The Internal Structure of the AS Java A selection of the most important services with a short description is listed below: Administration of users and groups and authorization administration.
Controls access to resources or applications deployed in AS Java. Allows access to information about the current system status. Provides general and statistical information, among other things, about the nodes in the cluster, memory utilization, performance, applications, and user connections. Provides an integrated log viewer for displaying log and trace information.
Manages the deployment of Java applications. A program module written in the Java programming language, which is used to respond to requests to a Web server in such a way that the content of the returned HTML Web page is dynamically generated. Servlets are standardized in the context of the J2EE speciication.
Used for the standardized, simpliied development of business applications using Java. Uniform interface to databases from different vendors, deined speciically for relational databases. The tasks of JDBC include creating and managing database connections, forwarding SQL queries to the database, and converting the results into a format that is usable for Java and making them available to the program.
The containers provide runtime services for the application components. Which of the programming languages listed below are implemented platform-independently? A, C Implementing an additional hardware layer for application processes makes it easier to adapt an SAP system if the number of users changes scalability , and to assign user groups to speciic application servers software-oriented view , load balancing.
The additional hardware layer does not, however, reduce the administrative workload. However, not all of the above processes are work processes.
The message server and ICM process are not work processes. The JVM executes the platform-independent bytecode generated by the Java compiler on the relevant hardware. These are two of the basic tasks of system administration. You will also learn about the available log and trace options, to be able to react correctly if an error occurs. System Start: Java Startup and Control Framework Please help me on this asap so that I can start my study and get it done quickly.
Get the best SAP Training. I will be writing on the 17th March.
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Ser Consultor SAP. SAP Basis Materials. Here you can download certification tadm For SAP Systems. Doc , PDF File. Sap tadm10 pdf Sap tadm10 pdf Click download file sap tadm10 pdf or Copy tadm10 pdf URL which shown in textarea when you clicked file title, and paste it into your browsers address bar.They represent modular java program components. This information helps you meet customer requirements even more quickly, which is an important prerequisite for proitable growth.
Once a printer has been set up, the SAP system has all the information it needs to be able to create a spool request. These are then carried out asynchronously in special update work processes. This calls up a dialog box that displays the corresponding parameter ID under Field data as long as a parameter ID is assigned to the ield.
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