Learning Objectives: After reading this chapter you will be able to. > explain PR concepts. > explain the importance, functions and elements of. Public relations. Principles, evolution, and professional practice of modern public relations. communication/persuasion and how to apply them to specific public relations. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. Strategic public relations planning and research techniques have evolved into the most powerful Strategic .

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This is the book Public Relations (v. ). This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa ( Advertising – Information placed in the media by an identified sponsor that pays for time or space. Marketing – Management function that identifies human needs . PDF | On Sep 1, , Shahram Gilaninia and others published The Role of Public Relations in Organization.

It is public relations practice in the cyber-space. It is highly creative, strategic, fast, result-oriented and yet cheap. Many multi-national corporations, banks, companies, parastatals, government agencies, non-governmental organizations, institutions, etc.

What Are the Functions of Public Relations?

They post their profiles and other data concerning the activities of their organizations in the website. Even news media organizations such as newspapers, magazines and broadcast stations have their websites in the internet. Private individuals and organizations also have web- pages in the net. Information concerning the organization are made available and could be accessed in the internet by anybody.

Today, organizations and clients are making greater demands on public relations professionals who help to post or create favourable and positive Nsukka Journal of the Humanities No. They are demanding more creativity, more innovations, more speed, and more efficiency in service delivery.

Besides, the business environment has become very competitive, such that any public relations practitioner who cannot practice digital public relations in this era of information communication technologies would be out of job.

This is because digital public relations is computer-mediated. To practice it, one does not need to be a computer expert, but have a basic knowledge of what computer is, its components, and its elementary operations. You must be able to know how to use computer to store information, retrieve information and print out document.

Joseph Turow notes that the application of computer codes in mass media materials opens the door to the possibility that audience members can actually manipulate the materials according to their interests. Connected to the producers via a telephone line, audience members would even respond to the producers of the programme via the computer.

The producers in turn, could then send out a new message that would take the response into consideration. This sort of manipulation and responses, much easier in digital than analog technology, is what computer experts mean when they speak of interactivity. We are leaving the analog age, they point out, and entering the age of digital interactive media.

Much activity in cyberspace, that is, on-line packaging services and the internet are still for mediated interpersonal communication — individuals interacting one-on-one with other individuals through print, voice and video.

But a large and growing portion of the on-line world involve commercial attempts to reach out to various audiences. As earlier stated, companies, organizations and institutions have sprang up to create sites on the web or the commercial on-line networks to determine who is coming to them, and even to encourage advertising and public relations on them.

The on-line world, in short, has become a new mass medium. Why should anyone want a site on the web? There are many reasons. When it comes to individuals, some people may simply do it because they can afford.

Others may want to share hobbies or photos or ideas about the world with anyone who will be interested. Companies tend to have four reasons for creating web sites. Image making means creating a site to reflect the personality of the product or services that is the subject of the site.

Through the web, corporations, companies, institutions and individuals can afford to reach an audience that would be impossible to reach with another medium. For example, the Ford Motor Companies web site provides consumers with information about vehicles it sells, along with information about Ford dealers around the world. Nearer home, Shell Petroleum Development Corporation also has a web site where all information about its activities and oil explorations in Nigeria could be accessed.

Ditto for all other multi-national corporations in Nigeria. Employees believe that workers who share an understanding of company goals and activities will be both more satisfied with their jobs and more productive. Executives also want members of the public to believe that the company is a good citizen, since that image might encourage downloads and help the firm get favourable treatment from local, state and federal governments.

In many companies, employee relations tasks are carried out by a PR firm in conformation with human resources departments. They provide their employees with company handbooks, newsletters, and magazines. Some organizations with widely dispersed visions even produce news programme is just for employees and members of the public that are sent via satellite to offices around the world or web sites for the public to access.

The other side of corporate communications involves managements concerns with images held by consumers. Even the largest firms often hire an outside public relations firm to help with their public image.

Given a high enough budget, the company might even create a movie that explains scientific innovations relating to the car for science museums. Agba argues that the world today is ruled by an ever-changing information and communication technology revolution.

Table of Contents

Some people call it information age or computer age. This has reduced the wide world into one small community.

This poses a great challenge to public relations which uses information and communication as its major tools in building bridges of friendship and cooperation among people and across the world frontiers. Nkwocha states that digital public relations is all about the use of new infotech technologies including wireless telephones, computers, internet, e-mail, etc.

Nkwocha also notes that information and communication technologies are now needed and can be applied in all aspects of public relations, corporate identity, product packaging, media relations, corporate social responsibility, crisis management, issue management and environment-al scanning. As we all know that a public relations is a profession that uses communication and interaction to create and sustain a favourable image and reputation among its strategic stakeholders called publics.

In other words, public relations establishes cordial and fruitful relationships between an organization and its publics including employees, directors, customers, suppliers, bankers, creditors, shareholders, community leaders, media, top government officials and agencies Nwosu, Public relations uses the tool of communication and the feedback mechanism.

We can define public relations as simply being guided in our actions by the biblical injunction of doing unto others as we would have others do unto us. We can also describe public relations as doing and trying to get credit for the good we have done. Nsukka Journal of the Humanities No. The advent of the digital generation has fundamentally transformed the nature of public relations.

This is the systematic and broad-based application of ICTs in all aspects of modern public relations practice that is computer compliant, computer driven or computer meditated Nkwocha Digital public relations is public relations communication on the cyberspace, the internet and the world wide web www. It also includes the use of the extranet for effective two-way communications with various publics who have access to the net. Nosike explains that digital public relations include the preparation of digital press kit dpk to extend the reach of the usual public relations press kit and ensure faster dissemination of corporate information to the media and ensure more effective media relations management.

Nwosu asserts that the most effective public relations is e-public relations or electronic public relations which take place mainly on the internet and the world wide web www which is public relations on the net. It can, for instance quicken and widen the distribution of press releases and press invitations.

In fact opportunities offered by digital public relations are enormous and varied. The contemporary public relations manager or public relations executive any where in the world, including Nigeria, must, therefore, master the principles and applications of digital public relations, if he or she hopes to remain relevant and useful to his or her organization. And the first thing to do is to ensure that he or she is computer literate because digital public relations is computer based.

Public relations first appeared public relations that is most commonly used during the American Revolution as propaganda in non profit organizations. Because non profit against the British Monarchy Bradley, As Broom explained development is a specialized known systematic effort to raise funds using part of public relations that only focuses on public relations Cutlip, The activity was raising money for non profit organizations conducted by preachers who were sent to England through maintaining relationships with donors, where they realised the need for a brochure which organizing charity events, auctions etc.

Issues Management It is common knowledge that public relations tools preserves the relationship of an organization are often used in political purposes. During those and its public Lauzen, ; Heath, Campaigns to shape public opinion Brief historical overview of public and move masses go back to Revolutionary War relations and Samuel Adams.

Adams and his revolutionaries understood that the strength lies in the people Public relations, although articulated in many words and their support and knew how to channel that and forms was used at the beginnings of primary strength and manipulate it. They worked on arousing and organize public opinion using pen, that influenced viewpoints is traced from the platform, staged events, symbols, news tips etc. Adams would use existing Broom, Fundamental elements of Public events or create new ones to serve his purpose Relations also appear in the scripts of king spies in ancient India.

It showed that besides espionage the spies were expected to inform the king about the public opinion and spreading positive image of public relations to a new extent Cutlip, The first presidential campaigns during the President Andrew Jackson created the press secretary Ancient Greeks considered the public will, while the Romans coined the expression vox populi, vox growing and people gained their political power Dei — the voice of the people is the voice of the the need for campaigning became necessary.

The growth of population and development of cities word propaganda was invented in the seventeen and wire communications in the post Civil War century by Catholic Church as Congregatio de America evoked the beginnings of public relations for the twentieth century Wolff, After that, it shifted to public awareness With the changing environment, the need Broom, More and more institutions that for managing relationships with public raised: That era public favor.

The expert in public relations was also formed a new major figure in public relations an inevitable phenomenon in a view of the need the political-campaign specialist. The first political campaign agency was opened by Clem Whitaker and Leone Baxer in To goal of his PR department was to manage public opinion Next important era for public relations started during the dispute Thomas A.

Edison ibid. As a change in living brought to public demonstrations former New York newspaper reporter, he started Carson, Businesses and institutions had to to work on a political campaign of Seth Low as a become more aware of the public.

His declaration be heard, wanted to communicate. Technology made clear that public should not be ignored or and international relations forced public relations fooled. He started the handouts to reporters which to evolve Pearson, He started revolutionized public relations. The two way communications, Broom, Not only was he a pioneer of the information accessibility lost control.

New paths public relations, his point of clarifying the topic of for public relations opened making the practice public relations is still being used. IT development provides new opportunities for PR: Next important era for public relations was the beginning of World War I. But with by traditional media, to greater diversity in points the beginning of war and the need of mobilizing of view, to increased interest in organizational people, it became provoking Mock and Larson, transparency, and to precisely targeted Public Information CPI with the goal to influence public opinion in favour of the war effort Creel, CPI became a powerful organization of scholars, journalists, artists, press agents etc.

As Lasswell , p. Public healthcare, according to its definition, consists of organized health efforts directed to Social marketing and public healthcare communities rather than to individuals, relying on a combination of science and social approaches The concept of public relations within the healthcare is grounded on the fundaments of social marketing. When it comes to public healthcare, public relations Greek doctor Hippocrates explained disease and lead a crucial part in social marketing.

Kotler and Zaltman first introduce the concept of social marketing in the early seventies Kotler A step towards creating beginnings of the public and Zaltman, By translate social action efforts into more effectively the middle of fifteen century, major cities in Italy designed and communicated programs that elicit established boards of health who were in charge desired audience response. This report brought fifty recommendations and a model of state public health law Rosen, University of London will bring about the pursuit of profit and not and Harvard University were the pioneers of those quality of care; research programs.

By the mid twentieth century, public health activities had evolved into fields of: Communication role: Notify individuals and communities of potential health hazards e. Use for understanding and motivating behaviour multiple levels of communication, including change in specific populations of interest. Public social marketing and community education, to health organizations use these techniques not only bring about healthy lifestyles.

Public Relations: State of the Field

Using a marketing approach can to identify and solve health problems. Assist in the development effectiveness of specific health interventions and of coalitions and partnerships that will lead to to strengthen the institutional capacity of the public collaborative action. But social marketing investment and outcomes.

Share and its framework, so it includes market research, information with the regulated community to public segmentation, competition, marketing mix, facilitate the adherence to proper licensing and consumer orientation and monitoring Grier and safety standards; ensure easy access e.

Bryant, Communication plays an important role in Communication role: Inform medically the context of public healthcare. The role of underserved population about opportunities communication in performing the public healthcare for health care and the need for preventive services could be summarised as follows Harrell, services.

Inform policy professionals. While there is a presence of makers about the efficacy of population-based enthusiasm towards PR when it produces highly health services. Springston and Weaver Lariscy, solutions to health problems. Communication , the PR activities are highly scrutinised for role: Publish results of applied research in their return on investment Hutchins, Conclusion Like never before, public healthcare is faced with PR is considered as a multifaceted field which so many challenges and expectations.

Thanks to belongs to both marketing and management.

While some field or is it limited to the field of marketing. As the 60 years ago PR practitioners in healthcare had literature review shows, their opinions are relatively an easy job to create awareness and preference opposed and there are also certain tendencies for healthcare since the healthcare organizations for the merger of different marketing functions in of that time enjoyed public support and sympathy order to address the multifaceted nature of PR.

Furthermore, the and Bryan, , p. Malpractice, scandals, practical aspect of PR in the public healthcare mistakes and misunderstandings occur in medical could also be comparatively approached from both and health care like in any other organization.

Because of the nature of public healthcare, it is the task of PR to help in bringing public health care institutions and public together by providing References accurate information. Furthermore, PR should be used for both internal and external public in the Adams, F. New York, W. Public Relations, 9th ed.

Broom, G. Available from: Chambered Institute for 3rd ed. Abingdon, Routledge, pp Public Relations [Internet]. Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. New York, G. Leadership in Public Health, Vol. Hillsdale, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Harris, T.

Exploring Public Relations

From the 17th to the 20th Century. Hillsdale, Lawrence Heath, R. A Brief History of Public Relations. Claywood, C. Hutchins, H. Goodbye cost center, hello profit Integrated Communications. New York, McGraw- center. Handbook of Public Hill, pp Cutlip, S. Relations in Croatian.For example, a situation for an automotive manufacturer might be the availability of side air bags rather than front placement in its new model-year cars. It is intended for people serious about entering a profession that is rapidly changing, shedding a past that often involved merely performing tasks managed by others and taking on a newer, more mature role in the management of organizations.

It is cheap because anybody can access information of any company in the internet without paying a kobo Nigerian money.

In the not-so-distant past, some practitioners worried that strategic planning might interfere with their creativity.

Public relations practitioners overemphasise print media evaluation. As Lasswell , p. A quick response by telephone or e-mail often stuns the recipient, and gains some additional mindshare.

For example, in late , Possible ethical guidelines for practitioners, Justine Sacco, a Public Relations Director albeit made for journalists, are presented in for InterActive Corp IAC , published this order to create a proper setting for digital tweet before boarding a flight to Cape contents in this industry. And second, effective creativity is more likely to result from careful and insightful planning than from a bolt of inspiration.

Heath ed.

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