PRINCIPLE OF INFORMATION SYSTEM EBOOK

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Principles of Information Systems. A Managerial Approach. Ninth Edition. Ralph M. Stair. Professor Emeritus, Florida State University. George W. Reynolds. MIS > Introduction to IS/MIS/IT > Principles of Information Systems - Principles of Information Systems - eBook from. $ Available. Print. Product cover for Principles of Information Systems 13th Edition by Ralph M. Stair /George. Copyright | Textbook/eBook from $ Whether you're.


Principle Of Information System Ebook

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Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Ralph Stair has taught Information Systems at many Principles of Information Systems 13th Edition, site Edition. description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version. Principles of Information Systems: A Managerial Approach. PRINCIPLES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Eleventh Edition, relies on 14 or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Records Classification: Concepts, Principles and Methods

Cybercrime and Information System Security. Providing a wealth of practical information for students, unique end-of-chapter cases follow a real company or organization that faces a problem or concept discussed in the chapter. You can assign these cases for homework or use them to prompt lively class discussion. You will find solid, timely coverage of strategic planning, project management, the waterfall model, Agile development, and the download software package processes. Students are also introduced to several robust change models that they can use to increase the probability of success when introducing new information systems and processes.

This edition includes current research on virtual teams and work structures, coverage of the most popular social networking sites based on the number of unique visits per month, and insights on how companies use virtual organizational structures to manage mobile workers. Engaging critical-thinking exercises, memorable business examples, and intriguing cases throughout this edition actively involve your students in learning.

Cases feature small, medium, and large businesses as well as non-profit organizations from around the world. Personalized teaching becomes yours through a highly customizable Learning Path built with key student objectives and the ability to control and add to what your students see.

Analytics and reports provide a snapshot of class progress, time in course, engagement, and completion rates. Each chapter begins with a set of information system principles that provide specific direction and guidance in decision making.

One or more learning objectives are identified for each principle to help lead the learning process. Each chapter concludes with a detailed summary.

To ensure comprehension, each section of the summary is updated and directly connected to a specific critical information system principle. Exercises cause the reader to analyze and evaluate concepts, processes, procedures, and principles, rather than just remember facts. The reader must also rigorously question ideas and assumptions, becoming an active learner. A critical thinking exercise appears at the end of each major section, providing three to six exercises per chapter to assign for homework or to use in class discussion.

Cybercrime and Information System Security. Providing a wealth of practical information for students, unique end-of-chapter cases follow a real company or organization that faces a problem or concept discussed in the chapter.

You can assign these cases for homework or use them to prompt lively class discussion. You will find solid, timely coverage of strategic planning, project management, the waterfall model, Agile development, and the download software package processes. Students are also introduced to several robust change models that they can use to increase the probability of success when introducing new information systems and processes.

This edition includes current research on virtual teams and work structures, coverage of the most popular social networking sites based on the number of unique visits per month, and insights on how companies use virtual organizational structures to manage mobile workers. Engaging critical-thinking exercises, memorable business examples, and intriguing cases throughout this edition actively involve your students in learning.

Cases feature small, medium, and large businesses as well as non-profit organizations from around the world. Personalized teaching becomes yours through a highly customizable Learning Path built with key student objectives and the ability to control and add to what your students see. Analytics and reports provide a snapshot of class progress, time in course, engagement, and completion rates. Each chapter begins with a set of information system principles that provide specific direction and guidance in decision making.

One or more learning objectives are identified for each principle to help lead the learning process. Each chapter concludes with a detailed summary. To ensure comprehension, each section of the summary is updated and directly connected to a specific critical information system principle.

Exercises cause the reader to analyze and evaluate concepts, processes, procedures, and principles, rather than just remember facts. The reader must also rigorously question ideas and assumptions, becoming an active learner.

A critical thinking exercise appears at the end of each major section, providing three to six exercises per chapter to assign for homework or to use in class discussion. It does not specify any task bearers or any procedure for the execution [FeSi06, p.

The task object is corresponding to the attributes of the business information system. It is manipulated by the execution of the task and transferred from the pre-state to the post-state. The goals determine the desired post-states.

In case the Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten Figure 2. Such a task is called decision task as opposed to a transformation task where the post-states are de nite [FeSi06, p.

The inside view 9 describes how a task should be executed in order to ful ll goals and objectives, that is, it de nes the procedure 10 cp. For machines imperative or declarative languages can be used. The objectives speci c to task bearers are also part of the inside view.

Such objectives are for instance to minimize the input of resources or to stick to given execution times [FeSi06, p. The procedure itself consists of sequential or parallel running actions which act on the task object.

If an action can be described functional, machines are able to handle it, otherwise it has to be ful lled by a person. The action control determines the order of the actions and initiates them in order to reach the goal. Depending on the type of procedure the actions might report back to the action control. Pre-events and post-events link the action controls of successive tasks [FeSi06, p. On the level of tasks of the application system the automated information processing tasks and their relationships are located.

To be able to take over certain tasks, computer and communication systems have to be extended by programs, that is system and application software.

These extended systems represent the level of task bearers of the application system and are often referred to directly as application systems. Application systems are designed for speci c tasks or task elds [FeSi06, p.

For applications planning it is suggested rst to break down the global task of a business system stepwise into subtasks and then to group the elementary tasks for the intended types of task bearers. Those tasks have to be suitable for automation of course.

As computers are deterministic this is only the case if the tasks can be described functional see [FeSi06, p. How- ever, tasks suitable for automation might still be not automated due to businesslike criteria [FeSi06, p. For example a cost-bene t analysis could reveal that it is more pro table to assign persons to certain tasks. But this decision then remains to the management. The inside view reveals autonomous components which cooperate in pursuing these goals.

No component has the global control. As isolated components would not be able to pursue joint goals, the rst property demands a distributed system to be an integrated system. From the autonomy aspect of the second property follows that there exist separate concurrent processes, that is the components communicate exchanging messages and service packages [FeSi94, p. This characterization of a distributed system can be applied to business systems, business application systems and computer systems.

In a distributed business sys- tem there are interacting business processes pursuing joint enterprise goals. For distributed application systems and distributed computer systems the de nition can be further extended. The black box characteristic refers to system transparency, which means that the distribution is invisible to the user. Furthermore, the autonomy of components requires loose coupling [FeSi94, p. However, this is only one de nition of loose coupling.

In Chapter 3 several levels of loose coupling are introduced. There exist di erent degrees of distribution for a system. By coupling formerly loosely coupled components tightly the degree of distribution gets lower.

Exchanging tightly coupled components through loosely coupled components increases the degree of distribution. The architecture design of the case study in Chapter 6 will be geared to the conceptual framework for distributed systems shown in Figure 2. The distributed business system level consists of cooperating business pro- cesses.

A process can become distributed by being split up into several loosely coupled sub-processes. To achieve automation or semi-automation of tasks, the processes are supported by application systems.

It is important to identify the scope of those application systems on the basis of the business process models before proceeding to the next level.

On the level of the distributed business application system domain related components are divided into sub-components for communication, application and data management. In case the sub- components on this level are all loosely coupled this leads to the maximum achievable degree of distribution.

In a second step those domain related components can be substituted by tightly coupled components according to speci c design goals. Those compo- nents nally use the machines determined at the third level.

On the level of the distributed computing system the virtual and real ma- chines, which serve as task bearers for the application components, are speci ed. Virtual machines are for example database management systems, user-interface management systems or application-independent class libraries. Computers and communication networks are examples for real machines. For the integral analysis and design as well as for the goal-oriented use of information systems, architectures of information systems provided an important means [Sinz02, p.

Principles of Information Systems

According to SINZ the architecture of an information system can be seen in analogy to architectures in the building industry. Thus an information system architecture includes the - construction plan of the business information system, in the sense of a de- scription of its components and their relations from all relevant perspectives, as well as the - rules for creating the construction plan. The construction plan is speci ed by the model system of the information system. Meta-models outline the rules for construction [Sinz02, p.

To reduce the complexity of the model system it is structured into di erent levels and associated views [Sinz02, p. A relationship meta-model can be provided to describe the relationship between two adjacent levels. Views are projections onto speci c levels and normally are incomplete descriptions of the level in order to bet- ter cope with the complexity [Sinz02, p. Heuristic modeling knowledge for speci c levels is o ered by patterns, which further limit the structures of a model system allowed by the meta-model.

Although they are mostly known from object oriented software engineering cp. Model-View-Controller pattern , the concept of patterns can be used on all levels of the model [Sinz02, p. The perspective of tasks, perspective of task bearers, functional perspective, software perspective as well as outside perspective and inside perspective are important perspectives which might lead to separate levels of an architecture [Sinz02, p.

Views are for example the view of data, the view of functions, the view of interactions and the process view. Whereas the process view is dynamic, the views mentioned before are static views [FeSi06, p. The level of tasks of an information system architecture corresponds to its level of functional requirements.

If needed it can be separated into sub levels. On the level of task bearers it can be di erentiated between levels for machines and levels for human task bearers.

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The former corresponds to levels of the software concept, the latter to organizational concept levels. Likewise, an application system architecture is a sub architecture of an automated part of an information system architecture. As such it has just like the information system architecture a level of tasks and a level of task bearers. The latter is known as the level of the software concept of application systems.

As the wording 'service-oriented' suggests, the components in the focus of service-oriented architecture are services. So it makes sense to think about what a service is and which role it plays in a service-oriented architecture.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten Figure 3. A service broker administrates the references to services in a public or corporate registry and o ers functionality to search and nd those references. The service consumer can nd services in the registry and uses them according to the information provided in the service description. This basic concept is tech- nology independent.

Which communication technology is used for the interaction between service provider and service consumer as well as how the publish or nd phase is implemented is not speci ed. In the same way, how a service registry of- fers the possibility to nd a service description is not speci ed. Theoretically, even an excel sheet could serve as a registry in case every service consumer has access.

But, of course, in realistic scenarios with a lot of services it will probably be fully automated, easily accessible and will o er di erent ways for searching services.

The awareness of a service is achieved through the use of service descriptions.

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Ser- vices use the service descriptions in a manner that is classi ed as loosely coupled. Messages serve as independent units of communication. Like services, messages should be autonomous and have enough intelligence to self-govern their parts of processing logic [Erl05, p. What distinguishes it is how services, descriptions and messages are designed. Therefore it is important to determine, what it means for automation logic to be truly service-oriented [Erl05, p.

Di erent organizations have published their own version of service-oriented principles [Erl05, p. These principles are discussed in the following section.

While service-orientation has had many in uences, its roots lie in a software en- gineering theory known as the separation of concerns. This theory suggests to break down a large problem into a series of smaller problems concerns.

As a consequence the logic to solve the large problem can also be decomposed into a collection of smaller, related pieces, whereas each piece of logic addresses a speci c concern [Erl06a]. Other paradigms like object-orientation or component-based approaches have also implemented this theory but key service-orientation principles provide a unique approach to how the separation is performed [Erl06a].

The principles autonomy, loose coupling, abstraction and the need for a formal contract can be considered as core principles which establish a baseline foundation for SOA. The principles that services are composable, reusable, stateless and discoverable are enable by the core principles [Erl06a]. The fact that Web services naturally support a subset of these principles may give an indication why the Web services technology platform is often considered suitable for building service-oriented solutions [Erl06a].

Services should share a formal contract Service metadata provides information about a service. This information normally is formally de ned by service description documents.

Together the description documents form the service contract. The service contract provides a formal de nition of the service endpoint, each service operation, every input and output message supported by each operation, the data representation model of each message's contents as well as rules and characteristics of the service and its oper- ations.

The contract de nes large parts of the underlying architecture and even semantic information, that describes how the service will ful ll a certain task, may be provided. As service requestors can become dependent on the service contract once it has been de ned, contracts need to be carefully maintained and versioned [Erl06b].

Management Information Systems (MIS) and Business Technology

Services should be loosely coupled A key goal of service-orientation is to respond to unforseen changes in an e cient manner. As the factors that drive the changes are often external to the IT en- vironment, the necessary evolution of IT systems and applications can never be accurately planned. Loosely coupled relationships between services directly sup- port agility [Erl06b]. Loose coupling is achieved through the use of service contracts that allow services to interact within prede ned parameters" [Erl05, p.

Thus the dependency is limited to the information contained in the service contract and the service con- tract therefore should be designed in a way that it is not speci c to any one service requestor. Krafzig identi es several levels on which tight and loose coupling di erentiate, namely physical coupling, communication style, type system, interac- tion pattern, control of process logic, service discovery and binding, and platform dependencies Figure 3.

Figure 3. This is also called service interface-level abstraction. The service contract determines which functionality is made consumable and which stays hidden. The amount of application logic a service can represent is not restricted, the source of application logic is determined neither. A service can support a simple task or be an entry point to a whole application.

It can be based on application logic from a single system or access di erent system to solve the task. Services are containers for service operations.

Thus in fact the collective level of abstraction attained by the single service operations determine the abstraction level of the service as a whole [Erl06c]. Many people wonder what is new about services because objects and components abstract underlying logic as well. However, this is not necessarily a contradiction. Abstraction has always been an important means to cope with the complexity of information systems.

SOA just establishes another abstraction layer to hide complexity from the consumer. The di erent layers of abstraction of an SOA are visible in Figure 3. The service layer further abstracts underlying layers like the object and component layer and o ers services to the process layer.

The process layer is a realization of the business models established on the enterprise layer. Reuse is encouraged even when no immediate requirements for reuse exist. The decrease development e orts through reuse, should result in more cost-e ectiveness [Erl06c]. Services should be discoverable In order that redundant development e orts are avoided, a service needs to be discoverable. So the overall purpose of the service as well as the functionality of service operations need to be su ciently described.

Although this principle is related to discovery mechanisms like service repositories and service registries on an architecture level, it is distinct from them and services should be designed as discoverable as possible regardless of whether such mechanisms currently exist [Erl06d].

As composition is just another form of reuse, service operations need to be designed in a standardized manner and with the right level of granularity to maximize composition opportunities [Erl06d]. Services should be autonomous Reuse is an important strategic goal of service-orientation. So a service is made available to a large number of consumers and as a consequence can be part of several business processes and service compositions. High usage volumes, unpredictable usage scenarios and concurrent access may be the result.

So the service should be designed in a way that it facilitates concurrent access and other reliability-related concerns. This is where the principles statelessness and autonomy come in [Erl06e]. Autonomy is a measure for the degree of control a service has over its underlying resources. By increasing the degree of control, dependencies on shared resources in an enterprise are reduced and reliability and predictability of the service are increased.

Although exclusive ownership of resources can not always be provided, it should at least attain a reasonable level of control. One can di erentiate between pure autonomy and service-level autonomy.

Whereas pure autonomy means that the underlying logic is under complete control and ownership of the service, service- level autonomy is reached when a service shares underlying resources but the service boundaries are distinct [Erl06e]. Services should be stateless The second principle which should facilitate concurrent access as well as promote reusability and reliability, is the principle of statelessness.

Table of Contents

When a software pro- gram is invoked or executed in enters in an active state. While it is not in use it stays in a passive non-active state.On the layer of functional requirements it consists of tasks that are to be carried out when performing a business process, and services as functional units that o er formally speci ed, reusable procedures for ful- lling the tasks appropriately.

Cases feature small, medium, and large businesses as well as non-profit organizations from around the world. Throughout the years, Dr. They are also known as endpoints. As with SOA 2. Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten Figure 3.

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