ANIMATION by PRESTON BLAIR. LEARN. HOW TO DRAW. ANIMATED. CARTOONS. PUBLISHED BY WALTER T. FOSTER. “The exercise content and evaluations in this book are outstanding. Liz “Fitness For Dummies is a real rarity: a f Cartoon Animation by Preston Blair. action" section is a big help in creating attitudes in posture and. Inovement. This chapter is the starting point to a world of exciting cartoon animation.
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ANIMATION THE HEAD SHAPE MAY CHANGE PERSPECTIVE AND FORM MANY TIMES DURING A . OR STUDY OTHER EXPRESSIONS IN THIS BOOK. Preston Blair's book “Advanced Animation” is one of the best books on the subject. Below is a link to a PDF of the rare first edition we will be using for our . Preston Blair, Cartoon Director, is one of the fine artists of Animation. excellent cartoon characters to appear in this book, among them Tom and Jerry that.
You can reach the course instructor, JoJo Baptista at jbaptista animationresources. Practice each lesson until you master it and it becomes second nature. As you may have already noticed, the examples provided in these lessons are drawn in an old fashioned funny animal style. You may have no interest in learing to draw in this style.
We understand completely that you might want to work in a more contemporary style of drawing, and we encourage that. The principle advantage of learning using these particular designs is their simplicity. Lesson O: In this lesson you are learning volumetric construction, hierarchy of forms, and proportions. This exercise is a qualifying round.
Start with the largest shapes first, and work your way down to the details. Next add the guidelines on the sphere following the curvature of the sphere vertically. The guide lines will help you visualize the head as a volume, not a flat shape on your paper. They will also help you judge the proportions so your features fall in the same place on the sphere each time. Now wrap a guideline around the form horizontally. You have created a volumetric sphere.
When the basic volume of the head is clearly defined, you can move on to the secondary forms. Attach the muzzle to the sphere. The muzzle is volumetric and wraps around the surface of the sphere. When you have constructed the muzzle properly, you can begin to wrap the eyes around the form. Use the guide lines as an aid to turn the eyes around the shape.
The eyebrows do as well. Even the small bits of fur are anchored to the main shape of the ear.
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Can you guess what the basic shape of the ears looks like without the details? Nothing is floating in space. It all wraps around the form. You design the basic rough pass of the movement using just the primary shapes.
Accuracy is also important in animation. If your drawings fluctuate from drawing to drawing, your animation will shimmer and shake. In order to get your drawings to flow from one to the next, you have to have complete control. Draw it many times. Strive to do better each time.
With each attempt the process will be ingrained deeper and deeper into your mind. Get to work! Email all this to the course instructor JoJo Baptista at…. Preston Blair was one of the finest draftsmen to have ever worked in the field of animation. When Blair put the book together in , he used the characters he had animated at Disney and MGM to illustrate the various basic principles of animation. Apparently, the rights to use some of the characters were revoked after the book was already in the stores.
Publication was halted for a time, and he was forced to redraw most of the MGM characters, replacing them with generic characters of his own design. The revised edition went on to become a classic, and the first edition was forgotten.
You can order the revised edition through this site link , or you should be able to find it at your local art store. Below is a link to a PDF of the rare first edition we will be using for our examples in this course. Extra peg bars are built into the compound. Many compounds have double top and bottom peg bars to help with 12 field production. Many compounds rotate degrees a complete circle. Fields can tip to any angle, twirl around, or shift to a degree vertical that would allow for an up-and-down pan scene.
Tilted fields are indicated in degrees, just as surveyors indicate angles on a map. This versatile camera can do many things. The camera operator shoots the scene based on the exposure sheet form and method shown at the left. The animator draws a heavy line at the start and stop of all camera and peg bar moves. A truck is indicated with a vertical arrow, a camera dissolve-out is a V, and a dissolve-in is an inverted V, as shown.
These two V forms are combined in an X form for a fade-in and fade-out dissolve, and they overlap in an XX shape for a cross-dissolve. Compound peg bar cel or pan moves are given in decimals, however, pan moves are also given with a chart of moves above or below pegs on the edge of the background.
When a held cel is removed, resulting in no cel position in column, a blank cel is placed. There are four cel levels. Sheets are usually for 80 frames or 5 feet see page A scene is easier to "shoot" if the pan is on the top pegs and the cels are on the bottom pegs. Animation drawn on the "natural" top pegs can easily be put on bottom peg cels.
The camera runs both backward and forward, and it can shoot a scene in either direction. Thus, a scene exposed beginning at the end and moving toward the start enables a piece of artwork or an animated cycle to be "scratched off" or cut off according to planned spacing.
When projected forward, the action is growth. A "matte" shot uses a black matte over a scene being photographed, thus the area of the matte is unexposed.
In another run a character is exposed in this exact area. The simplest form of animation is the "flip" book. To make a simple flip book, draw a dot, a circle, a skeleton, etc.
Then draw the same figure, slightly progressed, on the next page. Do this for fifteen or twenty pages, then flip the edges. An illusion of movement is created. Good animators retain the same spirit of fun and simplicity of the flip book in their work. In the film studios, the basic flip book idea is enlarged on. This work is then traced in ink on celluloid transparent sheets cels. Next, opaque colors are painted on. These inked and painted cels are then photographed in sequence on a painted background.
This motion picture cartoon film is then projected onto a screen.
An animation board will be a great help in your study of animation. download some unruled, 10" x 12" loose-leaf notebook paper that is punched with two big holes. Construct pegs of wood or metal on your board as illustrated so the paper fits snugly over the pegs. The glass should be the same size as the paper. When you turn on the light under the board, you will be able to see through several sheets of paper and note how your series of drawings varies in position.
Visualize and plan your action, then start with a key drawing or "extreme. Follow this procedure until all the extremes of your action have been roughed in, then make the in-between drawings to tie the action together. If the background moves, the scene has a "pan" action and is called a "pan scene".
During a pan action everything that touches the ground moves with and at the same speed as the pan - for example, feet that touch the ground in a walk or a run. Work "rough" when laying out your animation. Feel out the basic construction of all the drawings in a scene, add the details later. The drawings on page are roughs. It is always a good idea to anticipate an action.
When animating a character from one place to another, always go in the opposite direction first, just as a baseball player draws back and cocks his arm before he throws. To help accent a pose on a character, go slightly past the pose when animating into the pose. For example, in a quick point make the finger go out fast and then, just for an instant, pass the position it finally stops at. Create overlapping action whenever you can. Always get a good follow-through action on loose, moving things such as coattails hair, long ears, ect.
Remember "squash and stretch. This type of distortion will give "sock" to your work.
The recoil is a type of squash drawing, it is essential for a feeling of weight in your characters. Study the bouncing ball action on page , also see page Appreciate the value of a good silhouette in your key drawings. A solid silhouette of a drawing should still register the meaning and attitude of the pose see page Be alert to use exaggerated foreshortening in animation - it is very effective.
For example, if a character is swinging a bat around horizontally, when line end of the bat comes out and toward line camera, force the perspective on the bat, making the end very big.
Make "pose" drawings. First visualize the scene, plan it with "poses", and, finally, animate. Make a few drawings of how you think the character should look at the most important points in the scene.
These should be carefully thought out in regard to dramatic presentation, interpretation of mood, character, action, and humor. With these drawings as a guide, start with your first pose and animate your in-between drawings toward the next pose. When you reach the second pose, do not use it as an extreme in your action if it does not fit into the logical progression, instead, make another one that ties in with your animation.
Then proceed toward the next pose, and so forth. When possible, make a "path of action" and a "spacing chart" of the action you are animating. For example, if a character is running away from the foreground, off into the distance, and over a hill, make two lines charting the top and bottom of the character in its flight, then mark off the estimated position of each drawing on this track.
They will be spaced widely in the foreground and closely in the distance. The procedure of mapping your action will increase accuracy and save time. Remember the timing points, and vary the speeds of action in a scene.
A change of pace is usually desirable in animation. Learn the value of a hold: Study the art of going into and out of holds, cushioning into holds, when to freeze a hold deadstill, and when to keep up subtle animation during a hold to give it a "breath of life.
Use these pointers to learn how to animate characters that live, have feelings, and show emotion - characters who act convincingly and sway the viewer with suspense, enchantment, and humor.
The art of animation has a great potential and future for an animator like you. There are several ways to make your own cartoon film without too much money.
You can also make a film of your animation drawings without expensive sound tracks. You will need a 16mm or 8mm motion picture camera that is able to shoot one frame at a time and a wooden frame to support the camera as it points down at the animation artwork. The camera will be mounted to the frame in a fixed position, allowing only one field size. The frame is attached to a baseboard, and the animation drawings are placed on a set of pegs attached to the baseboard.
If necessary, make film tests to be sure the field size and focus are correct. Be sure the camera is not tipped at an angle and attach the camera to the wooden frame. Then tape the pegs to the baseboard. Floodlights are mounted at an angle on both sides of the camera stand above the artwork. Make film tests to determine the proper aperture. It is best if the lights are strong enough for a small aperture opening, but if the lens needs to be wide open, it will take less light and, thus, less heat.
Instead of taping down the metal peg bar, it is better to use an animation drawing disc shown on page This drawing disc should have both top and bottom sliding peg bars. This allows you to include moving pan backgrounds with the animation drawings. The animation drawings are lit by a light box built under the disc. The box should be well-ventilated, and mirrors are used to intensify the light and reduce the bulb wattage and heat.
Two layers of animation can be shot over a moving pan background as the camera sees through the papers. TV animation producers make pencil tests this way. The elaborate platen frames that hold the artwork down can be duplicated by placing a thick sheet of plate glass over the animation art by hand. Animation camera stands have a single-frame, stop-motion motor assembly that operates by pushing a button or a foot lever.
A film counter is attached to this mechanism to record the number of frames photographed. You can duplicate this process by operating the camera by hand for each frame.
Make a check on each frame on the exposure sheet after it is photographed. However, before you begin filming, you must prepare the animation artwork.
Transfer the animation drawings onto cels. Then paint the backgrounds and color the characters with water-based acrylic paint. download one pint each of black, white, red, blue, and yellow acrylic house paint and mix these colors to make the full spectrum of colors, in all shades. Studios use the same type of paint to paint backgrounds in flat opaque areas - similar to poster art. An effective technique is to dip a sponge into the paint and then dab the backgrounds with the sponge, creating a stipple effect.
For sharp edges, an area in a cel is cut out and placed over the background to serve as a mask. Different colors stippled in layers can create textures that look like stones, bare earth, trees, clouds, etc. Animated cutouts can replace the inked and painted cel with art.
Your animation drawings can be reproduced on a copy machine to make paper copies. Paint these copies in watercolor with any kind of shading you prefer, then cut them out with scissors or a pen knife. Place a cel over your original animation drawing and use rubber cement or paste to attach the cutout to the cel in exactly the same position as the animation. To make the in-between drawings that will help you with the animation, place the two drawings that are being in-betweened on the pegs with a blank sheet on top for the in-between.
Make a light rough sketch of the in- between in the desired position, then take the in-between and the top animation drawing off the pegs. Place the top animation drawing at any angle position over the bottom drawing to make the two drawings coincide closely.
Hold the top drawing down and place the in-between drawing over both animation drawings in the closest in-between position you can adjust. The corners of the in-between drawing will be in an inbetween position of the animation drawing corners - allowing for the arc of the in-between.
Hold all drawings down at the top or make a contrivance that will and make the in-between. It is much easier this way. Every student of the art of animation should read and own these books: Disney Animation: Provides a full perspective of the animation business and the art of animating in an intimate style that every student animator should read - and enjoy. Reprints of antique classics containing photographs of actions made before motion pictures were invented.
These books are revered by animators. Tells the story of the animated film studios and traces the beginning of the art of animation. Many pictures and a great style.
preston blair: how to animate
Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Chapter 1 - Chapitre 1: Introduction Chapitre 1: Chapter 2 - Introduction Chapter 2: Chapter 4 - Introduction Chapter 4: Chapter 5 - Introduction Chapter 5: Figures 15 to 18 occur in hand and arm movements. Once the parts are fit on, clean up unwanted lines. The abstract principles are 2. The entrance and the exit of the eye. Circular and rhythmic composition.
Angular composition. Light, shade, and color. CELS The bear and the raccoon seen below in a walk cycle animate through the scene, moving from right to left. A watt bulb or fluorescent light is used in a light box under the disc. If the background does not move to the right or left, the scene is "still".
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Preston Blair's “Advanced Animation” Book (PDF ... - Krypton Comics
Tata Sarabanda. Fowler M. From Student to Professional - It used to be the dominant medium for animation, though today its taken a backseat for most animation productions. In traditional animation everything is hand drawn page by page on real paper.
Animation by Preston Blair.pdf
If you were animating on a film, there could be as many as 24 drawings a second. Films are typically captured on camera at 24fps - that's frames per second. A frame is whats caught in the camera frame - a picture or a drawing. Now obviously, you could save a lot of time, cost, and stress if you could draw less right?
That's exactly what the master animators of old times did. They discovered a solution. Animating on 2's. And BHAM. Now you only need half the drawings.
To this day, this is still used. Sometimes there are even lesson drawings, like in anime or kid cartoons.Movements within the figure such as "squashing", "twisting", and "stretching" are only a few of the movements studied in this chapter. This motion picture cartoon film is then projected onto a screen. Starting as a small dot in the distance, the witch enters the near sky on her broomstick, screaming and cackling hysterically.
You will need them later to chart your progress. Turning forward, she hurtles up the narrow street canyon, pursuing the stumbling and falling villagers. And it works especially well for when your character is staying still. The animator is the "actor" of the film cartoon.