POCKETBOOK OF TAPING TECHNIQUES PDF

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Pocketbook of Taping Techniques (Physiotherapy Pocketbooks). Home · Pocketbook of Taping Techniques Views 5MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF. Functional taping is now recognised as a skill which is essential for those involved in the treatment and rehabilitation of sports injuries and many other conditions. Pocketbook of Taping Techniques (Physiotherapy Pocketbooks) by: Rose Macdonald BA FCSP. FREE DOWNLOAD LINKS MEDIAFIRE LINK.


Pocketbook Of Taping Techniques Pdf

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Pocketbook Of Taping Techniques 1e Essential Facts At Your Fingertips please fill out registration form to access in our databases. Summary: Ebook Pdf. our library. get pocketbook of taping techniques 1e essential facts at your fingertips pdf file for free from our online library clinical taping for physiotherapists . Pocketbook of Taping Techniques (Physiotherapy Pocketbooks).

The tape is applied along the affected dermatome region such that the soft tissue is lifted up towards the spine. The buttock is always unloaded Fig. This is followed by a tape which is parallel to the natal cleft, ending at the posterior superior iliac spine PSIS , and a third tape joining the first two tapes from 23 Pocketbook of taping techniques Figure 3.

The tape must be sculptured into the gluteal fold. Figure 3. If the proximal symptoms worsen, the tape diagonal should be reversed. A diagonal strip is placed halfway down the thigh over the appropriate dermatome and the soft tissue is lifted towards the spine for S1 dermatome, see Fig.

The direction of the tape depends on symptom reduction. The symptoms above the tape should be reduced immediately; the distal symptoms, however, may be exacerbated. If the proximal symptoms are worsened, the tape direction should be changed immediately if worse, reverse , which should have the effect of improving the symptoms. Once the tissues are unloaded the patient can be treated without an increase in symptoms.

When managing low-back and leg pain, the clinician may need to change the treatment focus, so that the treatment is not just directed at the involved segment but addresses the contributory factors. Patients with chronic back and leg pain often have internally rotated femurs; this reduces the available hip extension and external rotation range, causing an increase in the rotation in the lumbar spine when the patient walks. The internal rotation in the hip also causes tightness in the iliotibial band and diminished activity in the gluteus medius posterior fibres, so the pelvis exhibits dynamic instability.

The lack of control around the pelvis further increases the movement of an already mobile lumbar spine segment. It has been established that excessive movement, particularly in rotation, is a contributory factor to disc injury and the torsional forces may irrevocably damage fibres of the annulus fibrosis Farfan et al , Kelsey et al Therefore, an excessive amount of movement about the lumbar spine because of limited hip movement and control, in combination with poor abdominal support, may be a significant factor in the development of low-back pain.

This involves muscle control of the multifidus, transversus 25 Pocketbook of taping techniques Figure 3.

As it can take a considerable period of time for specific muscle training to be effective, tape can be used to help stabilize the vulnerable lumbar segments while the muscles are being trained Fig. Shoulder Taping — Repositioning Or Unloading The shoulder, like the PF joint, is a soft-tissue joint whereby its position is controlled by the soft tissues around it.

Poor muscle function, particularly around the scapula, and stiffness in the thoracic spine will severely affect shoulder function, making it susceptible to instability and impingement problems.

In fact, most shoulder pathology relates to these two factors in some way. Chronic anterior instability results in increased translation of the humeral head in an anterosuperior direction narrowing the subacromial space. Laxity of the anterior shoulder develops over time due to repeated stressing of the static stabilizers at the extremes of motion, for example the cocking motion in pitchers.

It is possible to increase the space available for the soft-tissue structures by repositioning the humeral head Fig. The aim of the tape is to lift the anterior aspect of the humeral head up and back so that there is increased space between the acromion and the elevating humerus. The tape is anchored over the inferior border of the scapula.

Care must be taken not to pull too hard anteriorly, as the skin is sensitive in this region and will break down if not looked after properly. The tape can remain in situ for about a week, depending on symptom reduction. Improving thoracic spine mobility and muscle training of the scapular and glenohumeral stabilizers must be addressed in treatment to ensure long-term reduction in symptoms.

Athletic individuals with shoulder problems often have extremely poor trunk and pelvic stabilization, which also needs to be addressed in treatment to improve their athletic performance. Conclusion Musculoskeletal pain can be difficult to treat as the clinician not only has to identify the underlying causative factors to restore homeostasis to the system, but also has to ensure that the treatment does not unnecessarily exacerbate the symptoms. In some cases the clinician may need to unload the painful structures before commencing any other intervention.

Tape can be used 27 Pocketbook of taping techniques successfully to achieve this aim. Tape not only unloads painful tissue but it can facilitate underactive muscles as well as inhibit excessive muscle activity. The therapist receives immediate feedback from the patient as to whether the tape application has been successful or not.

Tape can be adapted to suit the individual patient. It is readily adjusted and the tension can be varied. Tape is relatively cost-effective and time-efficient, so the therapist should be innovative and creative if symptom reduction has not been achieved, as tape can facilitate treatment outcome. British Medical Journal — Dye S The knee as a biologic transmission with an envelope of function: a theory. Clinical Orthopaedics —18 Dye S, Vaupel G, Dye C Conscious neurosensory mapping of the internal structures of the human knee without intra-articular anaesthesia.

Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 52A— Gilleard W, McConnell J, Parsons D The effect of patellar taping on the onset of vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis muscle activity in persons with patellofemoral pain. Aspen, Gaithersburg, MD Handfield T, Kramer J Effect of McConnell taping on perceived pain and knee extensor torques during isokinetic exercise performed by patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

Physiotherapy Canada winter —44 Herbert R Preventing and treating stiff joints. Orthopedics 19 5 — 28 Taping for pain relief 3 Kelsey JL, Githens PB, White AA An epidemiological study of lifting and twisting on the job and the risk for acute prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc.

In: Guten GN ed. Running injuries. Part I. Function dysfunction adaptation and enhancement. Part II. Neutral zone and instability hypothesis. Journal of Spinal Disorders 5 4 — Powers C, Landel R, Sosnick T et al The effects of patellar taping on stride characteristics and joint motion in subjects with patellofemoral pain. Journal of Orthopaedic Sports and Physical Therapy 26 6 — Roberts JM The effect of taping on patellofemoral alignment — a radiological pilot study.

Recently, taping techniques with the primary purpose of altering muscle activity have become common physiotherapy treatment options. There is a small but growing base of scientific evidence for some of these taping applications. This chapter examines the evidence in the current literature of taping techniques with the primary purpose of altering muscle activity.

Shoulder Tape Patients with scapulothoracic dysfunction have a tendency to have hypertrophy or hyperactivity of the upper trapezius muscle in relation to the middle and lower portions Morin et al Inhibitory upper trapezius tape Tape applied firmly across the fibres of a muscle has been proposed to decrease the activity of a muscle Morrissey A number of studies have tested this hypothesis, mainly by applying rigid tape firmly, perpendicular to the direction of the muscle fibres over the upper trapezius Fig.

A study using an isometric muscle contraction of the upper trapezius into scapular retraction and elevation showed that the effects of the Figure 4. Another study using a different methodology examined the EMG activity of the scapular muscles during active shoulder flexion and abduction Cools et al and failed to find any significant changes in EMG activity of the upper and lower trapezius or the serratus anterior with similar inhibitory tape applied. Only one study has examined the effects of the upper trapezius inhibitory tape in subjects with shoulder pain Selkowitz et al The results from this study indicate that this taping technique can inhibit the upper trapezius with a resulting increase in activity in the lower trapezius muscle during shoulder elevation when compared to an untaped condition.

The differences in methodology of these three studies make it difficult to draw conclusions about the absolute effects of inhibitory taping over the upper trapezius. The H-reflex can be seen as an electrically evoked equivalent of the tendon jerk reflex and gives an indication of the amount of motor unit activation available in a particular muscle Schieppati In the study, a tape was applied across the scapula towards the spine in a fashion believed to facilitate the underlying muscle with tension applied on the tape in the line of the lower trapezius muscle fibres, as previously suggested by Morrissey Proprioceptive taping Two studies attempted to assess the effect of tape on proprioception and performance in the shoulder.

The ability to reposition the scapula during active shoulder flexion and abduction was studied by Zanella et al with and without a scapular tape. The EMG activity of the trapezii and scapular retractor muscles and the quality of music performance were assessed.

Inhibitory Vastus Lateralis Tape The patellofemoral joint has been described as the most researched small joint in the body, producing pain and disability far out of proportion to its shape and size Gerrard One of the underlying theories behind the cause of patellofemoral pain syndrome PFPS is that there is an imbalance between the contraction of vastus lateralis VL and vastus medialis obliquus VMO muscles McConnell Stair walking has been described as one of the most challenging and pain-provoking activities in individuals with PFPS Gilleard et al However, there are some concerns raised about the methodology of this study in that the pace of stair walking was not controlled and the EMG data were sampled at very low frequency Herrington , Scott The authors assessed mean EMG activity during stair descent with tape applied perpendicular to the VL muscle fibres but also parallel to the muscle fibres, aiming to facilitate muscle activity Morrissey Unfortunately elastic tape was used rather than the rigid tape which has been used in all other similar studies assessing inhibitory tape techniques.

These two studies differ to such an extent that it is difficult to draw direct comparisons and identify how this type of inhibitory tape affects the muscle activity. To achieve a greater understanding of the effects of the VL inhibitory tape, a repeatable application procedure has been established McCarthy Persson et al a and the effects during stair ascent and descent assessed McCarthy Persson et al Two studies have assessed the effects of tape applied to increase or decrease the muscle activity of the calf muscle Alexander et al , McCarthy Persson et al b.

Both these studies used the H-reflex to assess the effects of the tape applications on the muscle. While McCarthy Persson et al b noted an increase in the soleus H-reflex, Alexander et al found no such change in the H-reflex with the tape applied perpendicular to the muscle fibres. The latter study found that application of a rigid tape parallel to the muscle fibre decreased the H-reflex of the medial gastrocnemius muscle Alexander et al These results are again conflicting, and the tape application varies with a greater reported tension application in the McCarthy Persson b study, and a different angulation of the tape.

There is also evidence that tape applied parallel to the muscle fibres of the lower trapezius and medial gastrocnemius decreases the motor neurone excitability during static conditions. It has been suggested that the inhibition caused by tape parallel to the muscle fibres may be due to the tape shortening the muscle Morrissey If the tape was able to shorten the muscle, it may off-load the muscle spindle and thereby decrease its tonic discharge and reduce the H-reflex Alexander et al Other proposed mechanisms have been suggested such as alterations in muscle activity from the tape causing mechanoreceptor stimulation in the skin.

It has been found that the mechanoreceptor activation is dependent on the direction of tension applied to the skin Olausson et al It has furthermore been demonstrated that application of tension on the skin in a particular direction will cause a particular change in muscle activity MacGregor et al It was found that when tape was applied with tension over the patella in subjects with PFPS, a selective increase in activity of the VMO occurred. This increase in muscle activity was greatest when the skin was stretched in a lateral direction MacGregor et al Research involving these relatively new taping techniques is still scarce.

Chronic anterior instability results in increased translation of the humeral head in an anterosuperior direction narrowing the subacromial space.

Laxity of the anterior shoulder develops over time due to repeated stressing of the static stabilizers at the extremes of motion, for example the cocking motion in pitchers. It is possible to increase the space available for the soft-tissue structures by repositioning the humeral head Fig.

The aim of the tape is to lift the anterior aspect of the humeral head up and back so that there is increased space between the acromion and the elevating humerus. The tape is anchored over the inferior border of the scapula. Care must be taken not to pull too hard anteriorly, as the skin is sensitive in this region and will break down if not looked after properly. The tape can remain in situ for about a week, depending on symptom reduction.

Improving thoracic spine mobility and muscle training of the scapular and glenohumeral stabilizers must be addressed in treatment to ensure long-term reduction in symptoms. Athletic individuals with shoulder problems often have extremely poor trunk and pelvic stabilization, which also needs to be addressed in treatment to improve their athletic performance.

Conclusion Musculoskeletal pain can be difficult to treat as the clinician not only has to identify the underlying causative factors to restore homeostasis to the system, but also has to ensure that the treatment does not unnecessarily exacerbate the symptoms. In some cases the clinician may need to unload the painful structures before commencing any other intervention.

Tape can be used 27 Pocketbook of taping techniques successfully to achieve this aim. Tape not only unloads painful tissue but it can facilitate underactive muscles as well as inhibit excessive muscle activity. The therapist receives immediate feedback from the patient as to whether the tape application has been successful or not.

Tape can be adapted to suit the individual patient. It is readily adjusted and the tension can be varied. Tape is relatively cost-effective and time-efficient, so the therapist should be innovative and creative if symptom reduction has not been achieved, as tape can facilitate treatment outcome. Medicine Science in Sports and Exercise 25 9: Physical Therapy 75 8: Spine 22 Isokinetics and Exercise Science 2 1: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 34 Clinical Orthopaedics American Journal of Sports Medicine 26 6: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 52A: Physical Therapy 78 1: Aspen, Gaithersburg, MD Handfield T, Kramer J Effect of McConnell taping on perceived pain and knee extensor torques during isokinetic exercise performed by patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

Physiotherapy Canada winter: Journal of Biomechanics Orthopedics 19 5: Journal of Orthopaedic Research 2: American Journal of Sports Medicine Sport Health 9 4: Journal of Science Medicine and Sport 3 3: Guten GN ed.

Running injuries. Part I. Function dysfunction adaptation and enhancement. Journal of Spinal Disorders 5 4: Part II. Neutral zone and instability hypothesis. Journal of Orthopaedic Sports and Physical Therapy 26 6: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 10 4: Recently, taping techniques with the primary purpose of altering muscle activity have become common physiotherapy treatment options.

There is a small but growing base of scientific evidence for some of these taping applications. This chapter examines the evidence in the current literature of taping techniques with the primary purpose of altering muscle activity. Shoulder Tape Patients with scapulothoracic dysfunction have a tendency to have hypertrophy or hyperactivity of the upper trapezius muscle in relation to the middle and lower portions Morin et al Inhibitory upper trapezius tape Tape applied firmly across the fibres of a muscle has been proposed to decrease the activity of a muscle Morrissey A number of studies have tested this hypothesis, mainly by applying rigid tape firmly, perpendicular to the direction of the muscle fibres over the upper trapezius Fig.

A study using an isometric muscle contraction of the upper trapezius into scapular retraction and elevation showed that the effects of the Figure 4. Another study using a different methodology examined the EMG activity of the scapular muscles during active shoulder flexion and abduction Cools et al and failed to find any significant changes in EMG activity of the upper and lower trapezius or the serratus anterior with similar inhibitory tape applied. Only one study has examined the effects of the upper trapezius inhibitory tape in subjects with shoulder pain Selkowitz et al The results from this study indicate that this taping technique can inhibit the upper trapezius with a resulting increase in activity in the lower trapezius muscle during shoulder elevation when compared to an untaped condition.

The differences in methodology of these three studies make it difficult to draw conclusions about the absolute effects of inhibitory taping over the upper trapezius. The H-reflex can be seen as an electrically evoked equivalent of the tendon jerk reflex and gives an indication of the amount of motor unit activation available in a particular muscle Schieppati In the study, a tape was applied across the scapula towards the spine in a fashion believed to facilitate the underlying muscle with tension applied on the tape in the line of the lower trapezius muscle fibres, as previously suggested by Morrissey Proprioceptive taping Two studies attempted to assess the effect of tape on proprioception and performance in the shoulder.

The ability to reposition the scapula during active shoulder flexion and abduction was studied by Zanella et al with and without a scapular tape. The EMG activity of the trapezii and scapular retractor muscles and the quality of music performance were assessed. Inhibitory Vastus Lateralis Tape The patellofemoral joint has been described as the most researched small joint in the body, producing pain and disability far out of proportion to its shape and size Gerrard One of the underlying theories behind the cause of patellofemoral pain syndrome PFPS is that there is an imbalance between the contraction of vastus lateralis VL and vastus medialis obliquus VMO muscles McConnell Stair walking has been described as one of the most challenging and pain-provoking activities in individuals with PFPS Gilleard et al However, there are some concerns raised about the methodology of this study in that the pace of stair walking was not controlled and the EMG data were sampled at very low frequency Herrington , Scott The authors assessed mean EMG activity during stair descent with tape applied perpendicular to the VL muscle fibres but also parallel to the muscle fibres, aiming to facilitate muscle activity Morrissey Unfortunately elastic tape was used rather than the rigid tape which has been used in all other similar studies assessing inhibitory tape techniques.

These two studies differ to such an extent that it is difficult to draw direct comparisons and identify how this type of inhibitory tape affects the muscle activity. To achieve a greater understanding of the effects of the VL inhibitory tape, a repeatable application procedure has been established McCarthy Persson et al a and the effects during stair ascent and descent assessed McCarthy Persson et al Two studies have assessed the effects of tape applied to increase or decrease the muscle activity of the calf muscle Alexander et al , McCarthy Persson et al b.

Both these studies used the H-reflex to assess the effects of the tape applications on the muscle. While McCarthy Persson et al b noted an increase in the soleus H-reflex, Alexander et al found no such change in the H-reflex with the tape applied perpendicular to the muscle fibres. The latter study found that application of a rigid tape parallel to the muscle fibre decreased the H-reflex of the medial gastrocnemius muscle Alexander et al These results are again conflicting, and the tape application varies with a greater reported tension application in the McCarthy Persson b study, and a different angulation of the tape.

There is also evidence that tape applied parallel to the muscle fibres of the lower trapezius and medial gastrocnemius decreases the motor neurone excitability during static conditions. It has been suggested that the inhibition caused by tape parallel to the muscle fibres may be due to the tape shortening the muscle Morrissey If the tape was able to shorten the muscle, it may off-load the muscle spindle and thereby decrease its tonic discharge and reduce the H-reflex Alexander et al Other proposed mechanisms have been suggested such as alterations in muscle activity from the tape causing mechanoreceptor stimulation in the skin.

It has been found that the mechanoreceptor activation is dependent on the direction of tension applied to the skin Olausson et al It has furthermore been demonstrated that application of tension on the skin in a particular direction will cause a particular change in muscle activity MacGregor et al It was found that when tape was applied with tension over the patella in subjects with PFPS, a selective increase in activity of the VMO occurred.

This increase in muscle activity was greatest when the skin was stretched in a lateral direction MacGregor et al Research involving these relatively new taping techniques is still scarce. There is need for further exploration of the effects and mechanisms of actions underlying taping techniques to alter muscle activity and proprioception. References Ackermann B, Adams R, Marshall E The effect of scapula taping on electromyographic activity and musical performance in professional violinists.

Australian Journal of Physiotherapy Manual Therapy 8 1: A study using the triceps surae. Manual Therapy 7 3: Zuluaga M ed. Sports physiotherapy. Physical Therapy Physiotherapy 86 7: Clinical Rehabilitation Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 37 3: Manual Therapy 1: Journal of Orthopedic Research Journal of Sport Rehabilitation 6: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 4 3: Brain Research 1—2: Progress in Neurobiology Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy 37 Physiotherapy 86 4: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation 10 2: Function To stabilize and support the big toe in sprain of the MTP joint.

Materials Tape adherent, 2. Position The athlete should be sitting with the foot in a relaxed position over a table. Application 1.

Apply tape adherent.

With the foot and big toe in a neutral position, apply anchor strips to the big toe and midfoot Fig. Apply four to six precut 2. Finish by covering the toe with two to three 2. Cover the midfoot with 5-cm light elastic tape Fig. Check Function It is important to check function. The purpose of the tape is to stabilize the joint; if this is not accomplished, pain will result. Therefore the tape must be tightened. If pain is only in one movement of the toes whether in flexion or extension , prevent only that movement.

This allows for greater mobility of the toe. Do not put the toe at an anatomical disadvantage — excessive flexion or extension — to prevent pain.

Function To relieve the symptoms and allow walking in comfort. Helps to correct a mild deformity. Materials Adhesive spray, 5-cm stretch tape and 2. Position Supine, with the foot over the edge of the plinth. Lightly spray the foot. Using 5-cm stretch tape, attach to the medial side of the proximal phalanx of the great toe, distal to the joint line.

Anchor with a strip of 2. Draw tape back and around the heel, down the lateral side, under the arch, encircle the midfoot and finish under the arch Figs 5. Close off with a strip of rigid tape. Check Function Have the patient walk to check comfort. Contraindication Ensure the tape is not too tight at the initial stage, as it may cause excessive abduction of the great toe. The abduction may be increased little by little as necessary. Hughes Indication Foot, ankle and lower-limb injuries caused by hyperpronation.

A diagnostic tool to assess the value of functional orthotics. Function To limit the degree of calcaneal eversion which occurs early in the stance phase of the gait cycle.

To assist plantarflexion of the first ray in late stance phase. Materials 3. Position Long sitting with the foot over the end of the bed. Application Apply the hypoallergenic tape in the same sequence as the rigid tape to follow: Apply two anchors to the forefoot, over and just posterior to the MTP joints, overlapping by two-thirds Fig. The tape continues under the medial longitudinal arch to end on the superomedial aspect of the first ray. This will plantarflex the first ray when weight-bearing and reinforces the tape tension Fig.

Finish with an anchor over the distal half of the first ray. The sensation quickly dissipates as the patient describes significant comfort, control and support with the technique. Figure 5.

Function To support the arch and take pressure off the plantar fascia and thus allow healing. Position Sitting on the plinth with the foot relaxed over the edge of the bed. Apply the tape around the midfoot from lateral to medial, starting on the dorsum below the base of the fifth metatarsal and finishing on the dorsum below the base of the first metatarsal.

Do not pull the strap. Place it around the foot. Leave a gap between the two edges of the tape on the dorsum of the foot, i. Repeat four to five times dependent on the size of the foot , overlapping each strap by half Fig.

It is critical that the last strap does not end at the origin of the plantar fascia on the calcaneum. This will aggravate the plantar fascia. Note that the taping does not extend far into the heel.

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It is just posterior to the plantar fascia origin on the calcaneus. Apply two lock strips to tie down the loose ends on the dorsum of the foot, leaving a gap in the centre Fig. The strapping can be finished off with one or two lightly applied 5-cm EAB around the existing strapping, finishing on the dorsum of the foot.

A small strip of rigid tape can be used to hold the EAB down Fig. Sometimes the taping needs to be reinforced during a match, e. However, the last two straps may be brought up even further to travel along and finish at the junction of the medial shin and the muscle bulk, as high up as the MTSS pain Fig.

This tape is excellent as a temporary measure for assessing whether a patient needs medial arch supports orthotics as a permanent fixture. Macdonald Indication Overuse syndromes such as plantar fasciitis, medial arch strain, shin splints associated with overpronation. Function Limit abnormal pronation, reduce strain on the plantar fascia. Materials Adhesive spray, 2. Position The leg extended over end of couch, the foot relaxed.

Spray the foot area to be taped. Place tape on the lateral aspect of the fifth metatarsal head, draw the tape firmly along the lateral border of the foot and around the heel Fig. Depress the first metatarsal head with the index finger, supporting the second to fifth metatarsal heads with the thumb Fig.

Draw the tape along the medial border and attach to the first metatarsal head Fig. Repeat these strips once or twice more, overlapping the preceding strip by one-third. Tie these strips down with two to three support tapes under the arch, from lateral to medial Fig. Stand the athlete and close off the top of the foot with two to three bridging tapes while weight-bearing Fig. Check Function Does the foot feel more comfortable on weight-bearing?

A heel wedge may be placed under the heel to aid supination. Macdonald Indication Longitudinal arch strain, overpronation plantar fasciitis. Function To support the arch and relieve strain on the plantar fascia. Materials 5-cm stretch tape, 3. Position Lying prone with the foot in neutral position over the end of the couch. Application Support 1. Using 5-cm stretch tape, start on the medial side of the foot, proximal to the head of the first metatarsal. Draw the tape along the medial border, around the heel and across the sole of the foot.

Finish at the starting point Fig. Repeat the procedure. Start proximal to the head of the fifth metatarsal. Draw the tape along the lateral border of the foot, around the heel and back to the starting point applying tension as the tape passes over the plantar fascia attachment to the calcaneus; Fig.

Cover strips 3. Fill in the sole of the foot with strips of stretch tape. Start at the metatarsal heads on the lateral side. Draw the tape towards the medial side.

Lift the arch up before attaching medially Fig. Lock strips 4. Secure edges by applying a strip of 3. Finish at the first metatarsal head Fig. Stand the patient up. Apply one lock strip over the dorsum of the foot to secure the tape ends Fig. If they are, release the edges. Contraindication Rigid foot, pes planus. A heel pad Cyriax is also beneficial.

For a sweaty foot, apply the last lock strips around the whole foot, making sure that the forefoot is splayed weight-bearing before closing the ends on the dorsum of the foot. Macdonald Indication Medial longitudinal arch pain or overpronation. Function To lift and support the medial arch and relieve stress on the supporting ligaments.

Materials Felt or dense foam for arch pad, 7. Position Lying prone with the foot over the end of the couch. Measure the distance from the first metatarsal head to the anterior aspect of the calcaneus Fig. Cut an arch pad to fit this size and of appropriate thickness to raise the arch. Bevel the side of the pad which lies along the midline of the plantar surface of the foot.

Sit the patient up on the couch. Anchor 2. Using 7. Apply with minimal tension, with the adhesive side facing out. Ensure the closing seam is under the arch this avoids seams under laces. Place the pad in position with the straight edge along the midline of the foot Fig. Support strip 3. Cover with another strip of stretch tape, this time with the adhesive side innermost Fig. Lock strip 4. Secure the seam with tape. Remove the entire support — turn inside out and close off the inside seam Fig.

Contraindication Not to be worn in conjunction with a shoe containing a built-up medial arch support. Talcum powder will eliminate tackiness on an uncovered adhesive mass. Macdonald Indication Minor subluxation of the cuboid associated with inversion ankle sprain in dancers, hypermobility of the calcaneocuboid joint on the plantar surface. Function To maintain the cuboid in a stable position and stabilize the midfoot.

Materials 5-cm, 7. Position Seated with the foot over the edge of the couch.

Stick the pad directly under the cuboid on the plantar surface of the foot with the outer edge bevelled. Using 5-cm stretch tape, start on the medial side of the foot and draw the tape back and around the heel. Angle the tape down the lateral side, under the arch, pull up and encircle the foot to finish under the arch Fig.

Repeat the procedure starting on the lateral side of the foot, passing around the heel, under the arch from the medial side, and encircling the foot to finish under the arch Fig.

Hold in place with one or two strips of 7. Tie down the edge with a strip of 3. Check Function Stand the patient up to see if the technique is comfortable. Contraindication Refrain from activity for a few days to avoid a recurrent subluxation. Hing and D. Reid Indication Heel pain, chronic plantar fasciitis, subtalar joint dysfunction. When a mobilization with movement MWM of the calcaneum has restored painfree function this may be internal or external rotation, depending on which direction relieves the pain.

Function Alters the position of the calcaneum in relation to the talus, thus correcting a positional fault.

Materials Spray adhesive or hypoallergenic undertape Fixomull or Mefix , 3. Position With the patient side-lying on the plinth with the ankle relaxed in neutral position. If taping to maintain internal rotation of the calcaneum, the patient lies with the affected ankle underneath, with the medial aspect of the ankle superior. Application Calcaneum taped into internal rotation. The initial strip of tape is placed obliquely, around the back of the heel, while internal rotation of the calcaneum is maintained Fig.

Run the tape obliquely and medially over the calcaneum. A second tape is placed over the first for effectiveness. Check Function When the patient initially stands, initial difficulty in walking may be experienced due to the repositioning of the calcaneum. Assess the original painful movements i. Movements should now have pain-free full range of motion and function.

In particular, with this taping, tape should be left on overnight, as it is often in the morning that the patient feels most pain. Macdonald Indication Thinning of the fat pad due to trauma, overuse or lack of shock-absorbing material in the shoe.

Function To compress the thinning fat pad from the edges toward the centre of the heel. Materials Sponge rubber heel pad, adhesive spray, 2. Position Prone with the feet over the edge of the couch. Spray the area and apply the pad to the base of the heel may be applied before or after the tape job; Fig.

Apply two anchors of tape interlocking around the heel and under the foot in a basketweave fashion Fig. Repeat these strips overlapping the preceding ones by half, anchoring the pad in place. The last strips should conform to the shape of the heel Fig. Reapply the anchors Fig. Check Function Can the patient dorsiflex and plantarflex comfortably. Does the tape job take pressure off the bruise? Contraindication Open wound on the heel base.

A further strip of tape may be applied around the point of the heel to prevent the tape rolling when putting on a sock or shoe. Reapply anchors. Starting on the dorsum of the foot, encircle the foot once by taking the wrap down the medial side, under the arch and up the lateral side.

Pocketbook of Taping Techniques (Physiotherapy Pocketbooks)

Before encircling the foot a second time, fold down a corner of the first turn so that it will be locked in place on the second turn Fig. Continue the wrap from the dorsum around the back of the heel, over the dorsum again, down the medial side under the heel, as far back on the heel as possible Fig.

As you come up on the lateral side, rip the bandage down the centre to just under the tip of the lateral malleolus and wrap one tail around the front of the ankle and the other around the back Fig. The cohesive bandage will stick to itself; there is no need for pins or clasps. It can also be applied over a shoe if removal of the shoe may cause further damage to the injured structures.

Spray area — apply a single layer of underwrap, spray foam pads, allow to get tacky, then apply around the medial and lateral malleoli. Do not close the anchors — leave a gap to allow swelling to subside.

Apply a vertical strip from the medial side of the leg anchor, passing under the heel and up to attach to the lateral side. Apply a horizontal strip running from the lateral side of the foot anchor, around the heel and attach to the medial side Fig.

Apply two or three more strips in this fashion until the ankle joint is supported Fig. Fill in with support strips from proximal to distal, again leaving a gap. Cover the edges with two vertical strips running from top to bottom to finish Fig. Cut a felt horseshoe to fit around the lateral aspect of the ankle Fig.

Take a piece of 3. Apply an anchor around the lower third of the leg Fig. This should not be tight or it will impede the flow of blood back up the leg. Take another piece of sports tape.

This keeps the tension toward the lateral side and prevents the ankle from turning in. In the acute stage, approximately two pieces of tape should be enough. Apply a final anchor over the top portion of the tape to hold the lateral tapes firm. Finally, apply a Coban cohesive bandage over the taped ankle Fig. Start at the midfoot and apply a little more tension on the foot section, and reduce the tension as you work up the leg.

This will ensure that the blood supply is enhanced in a distal to proximal direction. Also compresses the swelling around the lateral malleolus.

When a mobilization with movement MWM has restored pain-free function. The injury occurs due to the fibula being forced forward during excessive inversion action. The aim of taping is to glide the fibula dorsocranially. Apply and maintain MWM to the distal fibula.

The tape starts anterolaterally over the distal end of the fibula and lies obliquely Fig. Direct the tape in a posterosuperior direction, making sure to lay the tape over the Achilles, to end anteromedially on the tibia Fig. Assess original painful movements ankle inversion, gait. Movements should now be pain-free with full range of motion and function. Also rule out the possibility of an avulsion fracture of the fibula. To maintain the position of the rear foot during weight-bearing.

Place the rear foot in the desired position. Start a piece of 3. Bring the tape down and laterally over the lateral aspect of the heel, under the arch, to the dorsum of the foot Fig. Start a second piece of 3. Bring the tape medially over the medial aspect of the heel, under the arch, to the dorsum of the foot Fig. Repeat the sequence three times in each direction, slightly overlapping towards the midline of the leg Fig.

Anchor strips 4. Anchor the proximal and distal ends of the tape with the 7. When a MWM has restored pain-free function. In the case of pronated feet when viewed from behind , the Achilles tendon may appear convex medially and thus more vulnerable to strain. Position Patient lying prone with the foot relaxed over the edge of the plinth.

Application Taping for medial Achilles tendon pain: Apply tape to the medial aspect of the tendon, running posteriorly.

Place a finger on the medial aspect of the tendon over the tape and apply lateral pressure to concave the tendon medially, thus correcting the convexity. Once the initial piece of tape has been applied, lay a second piece directly over the first. Check Function The tendon should appear in neutral, or concave to the side of the painful tendon once taped. Assess original painful movements i. Figure 6. Before applying the tape, brush off the surface powder that appears when the Mylanta dries. This procedure is easy to apply with the patient in the correct position, so a family member could be taught to do the taping.

This would allow the tape to be removed at night and reapplied in the morning, preventing the risk of an adverse skin reaction. To be used as an adjunct to treatment of the Achilles tendon, in particular specific soft tissue massage SSTM.

To be used with bilateral heel raises. Function To reduce the load on the Achilles tendon when walking, exercising or playing any sport. Materials Friars Balsam adhesive protective lotion, rigid tape: A small pillow under the lower leg.

Apply an anchor using 7.

Apply a second anchor using 5-cm EAB around the midfoot, making sure that the tape ends on the dorsum of the foot. Use a small strip of rigid tape to hold the ends of the EAB down. Start the Achilles tendon strap using 5-cm EAB tape, the length being from anchor to anchor: The strapping does not touch the skin along the length of the Achilles.

A second tape may be applied over the first for further strength. One could use rigid tape over the EAB down the length of the calf in order to strengthen it further.

Apply EAB around the two anchors to hold them in place. It should lie in a direct line with the Achilles tendon Fig. It does not rub against the heel at all. However, if this is the case, a piece of gauze may be placed around the heel. Check Function This step is vital! This will immediately shorten the vertical tape and tighten the strap.

Caution Take care that the foot is not in too much plantarflexion, that the vertical strap is not too short and that the anchor and closing straps are not too tight around the calf. Try the site edition and experience these great reading features: Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Paperback Verified download. It's great to show you all the taping names One person found this helpful.

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Learn more about site Prime. Get fast, free shipping with site Prime.Patellar Taping The investigations into the relationship between mechanical and functional aspects of ankle taping are paralleled over the years by those on patellar taping. It has furthermore been demonstrated that application of tension on the skin in a particular direction will cause a particular change in muscle activity MacGregor et al Therefore, at the end of this pocketbook, as an aide memoire, there are two short sections on spica figure-of-eight bandaging and the construction of arm slings using a triangular bandage.

Arthritis and Rheumatism 59 1: Apply a piece of hypoallergenic undertape Fixomull as an anchor from the front of the chest over the end of the clavicle to the shoulder blade. Apply one to two incomplete anchors to the humerus distal to the deltoid insertion, overlapping by two-thirds. However, pain is usually not the result of an acute one-off injury but of habitual imbalances in the movement system which over time cause chronic problems. If the proximal symptoms worsen, the tape diagonal should be reversed.

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