Normalizing the MMPI. Baltimore. INTRODUCTION I Format and Use of This Manual 3 II. EFFECTS OF RACE AND CULTURE ON MMPI PROFILES 21 Race . about the scales of the MMPIRF can be found in two test manuals: Manual for. Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, /). PDF format allowing on-screen report viewing, repeated printing of reports, Portions excerpted from the MMPI-2 Manual for Administration.

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PDF | On Apr 1, , Mike Drayton and others published The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality tory-2 (MMPI-2) Manual for Administration and Scoring. interpreting the MMPI and the effects of race and culture on MMPI profiles. .. Format and Use of This Manual. 3. II. INTERPRETING THE MMPI. 7. Item Sub-. of the test, the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPIRF), published in , Technical Manual for the purpose of comparing the validity and reliability of MMPI RF scales with those of ..

Garrido, M. Butcher Ed. Graham, J. NY; Oxford University Press. Greene, R. NY: Allyn and Bacon.

Hargrave, G. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 14, McNulty, J. Psychological Assessment, 9, Schinka, J. Readability of adult psychopathology inventories. Psychological Assessment, 5, MMPI-2 norms: Comparisons with a census-matched subsample.

Psychological Assessment, 20, 4, Sellbom, M. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, Tarescavage, A. M, Corey, D. Tellegen, A. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 3, Journal of Personality Assessment, Visweswaran, C.

Appropriate police officer norms on personality scales. Aylward, J. Psychological testing and police selection. Azen, S. A longitudinal predictive study of success and performance of law enforcement officers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57, Predictors of resignation and performance of law enforcement officers. American Journal of Community Psychology, 2, Psychological characteristics of small-town police officers. Predictive validation of the MMPI for small-town police officers who fail.

Women in small-town policing: Job performance and stress. Bernstein, I. Truncated component regression, multicollinearity and the MMPI's use in a police officer selection setting. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 17, Beutler, L.

Parameters in the prediction of police officer performance. Changing personality patterns of police officers. Borum, R. Detection of deception in law enforcement applicants: A preliminary investigation. Brewster, J.

Burbeck, E. Police officer selection: A critical review of the literature. Campos, L.

Adverse impact, unfairness, and bias in the psychological screening of Hispanic peace officers. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 11, Chibnall, John T. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 27 2 , Spring , Cortina, J. Personnel Psychology, 45, Costello, R. Time-related effects on MMPI profiles of police academy recruits. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37, Police applicant screening: An analogue study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, Validation of a preemployment MMP index correlated with disciplinary suspension days of police officers.

Applicants' fraud in law enforcement. Psychological Reports , 73, Cullen, M. Davis, R. Dralle, P. Psychological Reports, 57, Gonder, M. Grossman, L. Sensitivity of MMPI validity scales to motivational factors in psychological evaluations of police officers. Journal of Personality Assessment, 55, The police applicant test: A predictive validity study. Haisch, D. MMPI-2 assessed post-traumatic stress disorder related to job stress, coping, and personality in police agencies.

Psychological Assessment, 6, Hiatt, D. Predicting job performance problems with psychological screening. MMPI profiles of problem peace officers. Hooke, J.

Personality characteristics of successful police sergeant candidates. Inwald, R. Personality and performance sex differences of law enforcement officer recruits. Use of psychologists for selecting and training police.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory®-2 (MMPI -2)

Unsinger Eds. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher. Johnson, E. Research, 8, Kleiman, L. An examination of the relationship between police training academy performance and job performance.

No case exceeded 50minutes of continuous evaluation. In line with the guidelines proposed by Graham for evaluating in clinical-forensic settings, the evaluator ensured the responses reflected the true condition of the subject, and responded to any doubts or questions.

Participants were informed of the objective of the study, the importance in collaborating with honest responses was underscored, and they were assured their data would remain anonymous and confidential. The results confirmed the correct execution: concordance with the clinical diagnosis registered in medical records, there were no cases of unwillingness to cooperate with the evaluation, outliers, or patterns of completely random or extremely acquiescent responses.

The same procedure and steps were applied to the sample of second degree prison inmates. The evaluation was undertaken as part of the classification process during the prison admission stage. The first step is related to the total invalidation of the protocol i. Thus, the results of contingencies on the No-Responses Scale? The psychiatric diagnosis of these subjects confirmed this predominance.

Thus, the results of the F and Fb scales, and the F-Fb index concur with the diagnosis for this population. The confusion usually is not deliberate at this level.. If this is not a random marking of the test.

In this introduction are discussed the usual interpretations for the two major populations with whom this book is concerned and. The severity of the problem is usually indicated by how low the K score is the lower the score.

The K scale score usually elevates to the 55 through 65 range when the stress is alleviated. In a college population. Such scores are usually attained when a person is defensive. In order to evaluate the K scale properly. When K is below 45 and the F scale is below 60 score points. Such scores are usual for people coming for counseling about an academic major or for students taking the MMPI as part of some experiment. People scoring in this range are indicating that their lives are satisfactory.

When K is below 45 and the F scale is elevated above 60 T-score points. Below a T-score of The person not only does not want to look bad to others L and K elevations. If the person is seeking to avoid a sentence by appearing to be mentally ill. Typically such scores are attained by persons who blame others for their situation. College counseling and mental health centers personnel frequently evaluate persons for other agencies. See point 7 under the marked elevations. A person in this range also may be bringing someone else in to be counseled.

Scores between 35 and 45 typically reflect situational difficulties. Persons applying for jobs and students being screened for specific programs doctoral admissions. Persons under scrutiny by the courts may have either high or low K scores.

In these instances. When the person has a T score over As the K goes above He also has hypothesized that elevations on this scale are associated with a marked constriction of affective responsiveness. The K scale is thus intended to detect defensiveness in psychologically sophisticated people. The K scale was developed after the other Validity scales when it was noted that there was no correction for defensiveness on the test.

In spite of the K correction additions to Clinical scales. Some authors Adams. Caldwell has hypothesized that the K scale may measure a fear of emotional intensity and an avoidance of intimacy when it goes over 65 T-score points for non-college populations and above 70 T points for college populations. The K scale was developed to measure how much the examinee wished to "look good" on the test. Dahlstrom et al.. The five Clinical scales were the only ones seemingly affected by this "looking good" attitude.

The K scale of 30 items was chosen as a correction factor to sharpen the discriminatory power of certain Clinical scales. This is a subtle scale. The higher the K score the more the indication was that the person desired to look good and thus a portion of the K score was added to five Clinical scales 1. This scale may measure the intactness of the individual's psychological defenses. The items are not as obvious as those on the L scale. An average score on the K scale is an indication of a balance between self-disclosure and self-protection.

Adults with elementary school education and lower middle-class socioeconomic status generally will score in this range Dahlstrom et aL. When the K scores go above a T of Test-retest reliabilities are fair to good between.. Generally speaking. A fairly high negative correlation occurs between the K and F scales and between the 0 and K scales. In one study of a normal population. Post therapy profiles tend to show an increase in K Cottle. Under ideal self-instructions "take this test trying to look as good as pcssible".

The higher values of K have not been used for discarding a profile as invalid as has been the case with higher values on the other Validity scales. In such cases these people may be undergoing some stress and thus do not feel as good about their lives as others of their socioeconomic level usually do Dahlstrom et al..

The generally favorable view they show of themselves on the K scale is correct and therefore appropriate Dahlstrom et al.. Contrary to the conclusions of the response set studies. Their lives actually are under control and well managed. Limits do exist to this defensiveness however so that it does not usually include the obvious items of the L scale. Scores of moderate elevation are typical for people in the uppermiddle class and lower-upper class.

The usual reason for this elevation is that the person is impelled to present a psychologically healthy appearance to others.

These people tend to have good mental health.

They are independent and are easily capable of dealing with their day-to-day problems. If someone from the lower socioeconomic class has this elevation. Job applicants may appear at this elevation because they wish to make a good impression. People with this pattern tended to be shy. This interpretation is likely to be true if the F scale is See Figure 5.

They may have problems which they are quite willing to admit. A very high K score with accompanying Clinical scale elevations may indicate an unwillingness Or inability to look at problem areas. They also tended to be uninvolved in activities. Because women tend to judge themselves more harshly than do men on a test such as the MMPI. A high K score is associated with the low probability of delinquency. The Marks. People may have scores in this range for one of two reasons. In fact. Deliberate malingering.

If this is so. When the K score is in this range. They believe life has been rough for them and that they have not had some of the advantages that others have had.. Special pleading foE help or attention. If they do have problems. Scores below a T of 35 may arise from any of the following Dahlstrom et al.. This interpretation is likely to be true if the F scale is below 60 score points. A Response Set..

Persons with this combination tend to be conventional persons who are joiners and overly concerned about being accepted and liked by others Carson. K See the K combination. They have difficulty expressing and receiving anger. K-L See the L-K combination. They tend to be unrealistically optimistic even when the facts indicate otherwise Carson.

See the 7-K combination. K F-8 1. K-F See the F-K combination. K-L-3 See the L-K-3 combination. K-9 This combination indicates a person who is hypomanic but organized and efficient Caldwell. If they are. People in this range may be having some situational difficulties. He or she also may be deliberately malingering or pleading for help.. This appraisal may be accurate. All-0 Response Set Profile.

L-F-K Profile elevated K scale. L K F Figure 7. Figure 7 is a typical Validity scale profile for a job applicant. The last two are less common than the others. Six validity patterns are presented in this section. The Validity scale profile in Figure 7 is usually accompanied by Clinical scates below 70 except perhaps for scales S and 9.

These interpretations hold true even when the K scale is above 70 and the L and F scales are lower than indicated. The higher the F scale dashed line. The solid line pattern Figure 6 is the one usually obtained with clients who admit emotional difficulties and request help.

When the F scales gets above 80 in this profile. For a profile with this Validity scale pattern. It is important in this profile that L and K are below 50 and that F is above L-F-K Profile elevated F scale. Even when the F scale is greatly elevated dashed line. Important considerations in the Figure 8 profile are that the F scale is above 60 and the K scale is above 50 and the L scale is 50 or below.

The person with this pattern is saying many of the same things as someone with the Figure 6 profile. F Figure 8. People with the pattern shown in Figure 8 are presenting themselves in the best possible light. As the F scale becomes elevated dashed line. L-F-K 70 b7. The solid line is usually associated with a naive.

Figure 10 is an unusual 2rofile. Important considerations for the Figure 8 profile are that the L is above They feel very good about themselves and tend to deny common human foibles. This profile is frequent for naive job applicants. People with the profile shown in Figure 9 solid line tend to have long standing problems to which they have become adjusted to the extent that they feel good about themselves elevated K while still admitting to some bad feelings.

Figure 9. They also tend to be simplistic and to see their world in extremes of good and bad. K F L Figure The total profile accompanying this Validity scale pattern Figure 11 should be compared with the all-false response set profile.

L-F-K Profile all scales elevated. The possibility is that the person with this validity pattern has answered the test from a response set of marking false to questions. If the resultant number is negative. The probicin with detecting "fake good" profiles is that college studems and people with good mental health tend to get elevated K scores and low I.

The "fake good" part of the index is usually gross- ly inaccurate for these populations. We do not use this index very much in our work with university and mental health clients. We tend to suspect that the faking bad interpretation is the correct one when the client is seeking some disability compensation. If the resultant number is positive and above The index number is obtained by subtracting the rawscore of K from the raw score of F. Positive scores are in the symptom- exaggeration direction "fake bad".

This index is found by subtracting the raw score on the K scale from the raw score on the F scale.

MMPI Manual.pdf

The fake good index worked best if F -K.. If the person is not trying to look bad. The fake good index. K index 7. K raw score difference of 9 or more usually is an indication of actually feeling bad. F -K 74 In the same study.

The names are long and in mary instances do not convey a clear These scales are as follows: The first term refers to scales 1. We also have included information on Clinical scale low point scores of below 45'f -score points. In these cases. Moderate Elevation refers to T-scores of 60 thru Two other terms for some of the Clinical scales with which the reader should be familiar are the neurotic triad and the neurotic tetrad.

We prefer to use the numbers for the scales because they are neutral and the way the scales are usually reported in the research literature.

International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

An elevation on this scale shows aesthetic interests. We feel such a viewpoint is incomplete because these scales also can. In all of these clinical scales. The term "elevation" as used with the Clinical scales usually indicates that a scale score is above 70 1-score points.

The information about the low end of the scales is scanty because little is written or researched aboui persk ils receiving such scores. We have noted trends in behavior at lower 1-score levels. This division of elevations into categories is a convenience and should not be taken as absolute. Most practitioners tend to view the Clinical scales as giving some indication of problem areas for a client. This is particularly true with 1-scores of 69 through The use of these two terms can be misleading because the implication is that with these three or four scales one can diagnose neurotics.

For these people. They do not wish to be classified with these manipulators.

This T-score is the normal level of the scale for persons in the medical profession and related areas nurses. In recent years we have been seeing people with low scale 1 scores who do not fit the above categories.

Hypochondriasis Scale Scale 1 is a straightforward scale which measures the number of bodily complaints claimed by a person and whether these complaints are used to manipulate others. Others who also may receive a scale score at this level are the children of those in the medical profession. Most people score in the 45 through 60 range on this scale which indicates they have the usual number of physical complaints. T-scores of 60 through 70 are common for person who are physically handicapped.

When the manipulation does not work. These people have been around illness a lot and have seen others use it as a manipulative device. This scale does not distinguish actual from imagined physical difficulties. When the T-score of the scale is below Persons with this elevation who do not have such a physical disability may be suffering from a cold or flu and thus may be feeling slightly "under the weather.

Kunce and Anderson When the characteristics measured by a scale 1 are working in the positive direction as shown by a moderate elevation in a psychokgically normal person. This elevation is more likely to be on a man's profile than a woman's. Elevations above 70 on scale 1 are rare in college population but are found frequently in mental health clinic populations. We believe this scale to be "characterological. A person with a moderate elevation thus may be interested in both perso al health and ecological problems.

When scale 1 is moderately elevated along with scale 3 and scale 2 is relatively low Hovey and Lewis have found the following traits: The 33 items of this scale are fairly obvious questions having to do with bodily problems Carson.

Even in a person who is otherwise well adjusted.. These individuals seem to be unusually responsive to their environment and tune not only into changes in their bodies but also into the immediate environment around them. When this scale is elevated above 70 and is not the highest scale. We have found about lo of the people is our mental health clinic populations scoring above 70 on this scale. Scale 1 is one of the most stable sales for clinic populations Carkhuff et aL.

Although this scale may rise somewhat with physical disease. When no physical illness exists and this scale is elevated. They suggest that this may be due to a sex-role sanctioning of somatizing behavior. When the person is actually physically ill and this scale is markedly elevated.

Physically ill pers'Ins may score in this range. Test-retest reliabilities are high. The 1 scale tends to be higher for older people from a normal population. Caldwell has hypothesized that people with this scale as their highest elevation are concerned about their bodily functions because of conditioning experiences of having their physical health seriously threatened.

PI2 A Practitioner's Guide Edited by James N. Butcher

If this is the highest Clinical scale. Kunce and Anderson have hypothesized that when this scale is in the moderate range and there are no Clinical scales above 70 T-score points except perhaps the 5 scale for men. People in this range tend to complain a great deal and are whiny Carson. People with scale 1 scores in this range may be very cynical and defeatist.

The following adjectives frequently are used to describe these people: People with scores in this range tend to see themselves as having some physical problems. The higher the score on this scale: This scale may measure dependency needs which are channeled into claims of physical illness Carson.

These people force others to take care of them. Scale I was negatively correlated. These people may also take pride in their pooci I:. For individuals in a weight reduction prorram. In therapy. Because they do not want to appear hypochondriacal themselves. These scores may indicate people who have been closely associated with others who have used illness in a manipulative way.

People with these scores are described as alert. In one study of medical patients. They seem to be free from hampering inhibitions and undue concern about the adverse reactions of others Dahlstrom et al. This elevation is associated with poor progress in psychotherapy. People with scale I scores in this range tend to "shop" for physicians and may see one after another.

One group of men complained of 1 84 They tend to have medical symptoms. They tend to react to stress with physical symptoms and resist psychological explanations for their discomfort. People with the combination tend to see themselves as ill and are typically depressed about this illness.

Older males tended to have histories of alcoholism. In another study Gynther. The scales in the combinations must be the highest Clinical scales on the profile. For internal medicine patients with the combination. Graham has found that people with this combination complain about pain and somatic discomfort. These findings may not apply to females Gynther. They were also excessively fearful.

Caldwell has hypothesized that this combination possibly indicates a phobic fear of death. People with this pattern are depressed. Some persons with valid physical disabilities that result in declining health also have this pattern.

Gilberstadt and Duker found this pattern in a VA hospital male population. They tended to lack aggressiveness and sexual drive. The other group complained of tension and depression. Female college counselees with these scores especially with a low 5 scale tend to have headaches. In contrast to patients with high 1. Both groups of men were competitive and industrious but immature and dependent. A person with this pattern called the slope usually is male. Male college counselees with these scores tend to have tension.

He may feel a profound sense of loss of body functioning Caldwell. Though they dreaded increased responsibilities. Men with this pattern usually reacted to stress with physiological symptoms.

Pand point lb in the Triad pattern. The Gilberstadt and Duker book should be consulted for further information concerning this profile. This pattern may be found in women who are characterized by one of the following Blazer. Men with this pattern tended to be demanding and dependent. Having marital difficulties. They developed somatic symptoms.. Figure This person may have a history of gastrointestinal difficulty. Having menopausal difficulties.

Women with this combination tend to have masochistic behavior with self-depreciation. They tended toward alcoholism. The Gilberstadt and Duker book should be consulted for further information concerning this pattern. Feeling sexually frigid. Gynther reported Gilberstadt and Duker's description of persons with this pattern also is accurate for the populations he has studied.

Fowler and Athey also have found the same behavior as Gilberstadt and Duker for this code type: Gilbexstadt and Duker found this pattern in a VA hospital male population. Complaining about infidelity or drinking by their husbands. He or she may be prone to ulcers Caldwell. If no long history of previous illnesses is present and the individual has a normal Dy scale below 50 and a high Re scale above These women were willing to accept a chronic level of maladjustment and therefore showed poor response to treatment Guthrie.

Being easily hurt by criticism or rebuff. Feeling conscientious about their work. They usual- ly were weak. They complained of tension. To properly evaluate disability clients who have this pattern. Complaining of fatigue. In an internal medicine population. Having hysterical attacks fear. Women with this profile combination had a varied set of physical complaints.

Men with this pattern tended to have physical complaints that may or may not have been real. Gastrointestinal problems are common Carson. Physical symptoms tend to increase in times of stress.

This combination is more frequent with women and older persons. Her behavior could best be described as agitated. In highly disturbed patients. Pain is a frequent complaint. In one sample of psychiatric inpatients. The high scale 3 seems to temper the pessimistic complaining attitudes shown by the high 1 scale Carson. This tended to be a female profile. People with this combination are very difficult to deal with in psychotherapy because they see their problems as physical in origin.

The lower the 2 scale. A woman with this pattern usually had a somatic complaint. Under stress.. Thirty-four percent of all patterns had psychological diagnoses. In other words. They saw themselves as physically ill. Men with this pattern tended to be extroverted. In one study Long. Wiltse and Rocchio have found that for patients treated by chemonucleolysis and laminectomy for low back syndrome. With the K combination if the person has had surgery.

A history of 11 steric pain which suddenly goes away often is present Caldwell. Under stress they developed psychosomatic illnesses. The Gilberstadt and Duker book should be consulted for further information about this profile. A high incidence of overeating and odd eating habits may be present Caldwell. Men with this pattern tended to have severe anxiety attacks and were clinging people.

Caldwell has found that when patients have this profile they are more likely to sue their doctors for malpractice. When the K score is also high with this pattern. There may be severe hypochondriacal symptoms. Temper outbursts were seen at times. People with this combination may be rebellious but not express this directly Graham. This type of person seems to need structure.

These researchers hypothesize that these men may have somatic illnesses to defend against their schizophrenic tendencies. Gilberstadt and Duker found this 2 pattern in a VA hospital male population.

The person may be pessimistic. Men with this pattern tended to have confused thinking. The 2 scale is elevated above These researchers found almost no females with this pattern. Men with this pattern tended to have chronic organic illnesses. They were seen as aggressive. They tended to be impulsive and effeminate. Family disruption was frequent for these adolescents.

For men. Men with this pattern may have passivity. They did not report physical complaints however. They presented themselves as physically ill and had had significant amounts of illness as children. They were defensive and evasive.. With this pattern. For women. They were seen as insecure. People with this combination tend to have feelings of hostility and aggression which they either inhibit altogether or show in a belligerent way.

Psychiatric patients may complain about somatic symptoms that are so bad as to seem delusional Graham. This person tends to be one who has coronary attacks Caldwell. As children they had been seriously ill and currently only one-half of them were in good health. On the surface the person appears to be extroverted.

This person is usually quite tense and may be distressed by an inability to attain high goals Lachar. These people tend to be ambitious but lack definite goals Graham. Runners and health conscious individuals also may score in this range. This is typical of people in the helping pro- fessions. As the scale is elevated. When the 2 scale is at 60 and the 9 scales at When the T-score is between 60 and Most people are below the 60 T-score point on this scale.

First of all.Others who also may receive a scale score at this level are the children of those in the medical profession. Are new norms needed for Blacks? They tended to lack aggressiveness and sexual drive. People with this combination tend to have feelings of hostility and aggression which they either inhibit altogether or show in a belligerent way. Caldwell has found that when patients have this profile they are more likely to sue their doctors for malpractice.

From hundreds of hours of reading comes the information that is listed for each of the scales. Its complexity adds to rather than detracts from its value as an appraisal instrument. Depression Scale 95 Seale 3 Hy.

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