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Connected car, with applications such as fleet management, in-vehicle entertainment and Internet access, roadside assistance, vehicle diagnostics, navigation, and autonomous driving, will be the fastest-growing industry segment, at a 28 percent CAGR. Connected cities applications will have the second-fastest growth, at an 26 percent CAGR each.
Global M2M connection growth by industries Although the number of connections is growing 2. The amount of traffic is growing faster than the number of connections because of the increase of deployment of video applications on M2M connections and the increased use of applications, such as telemedicine and smart car navigation systems, which require greater bandwidth and lower latency.
Global M2M traffic growth Trend 4: Applications traffic growth The sum of all forms of IP video, which includes Internet video, IP VoD, video files exchanged through file sharing, video-streamed gaming, and video conferencing, will continue to be in the range of 80 to 90 percent of total IP traffic. Globally, IP video traffic will account for 82 percent of traffic by Figure Global IP traffic by application category The implications of video growth are difficult to overstate. With video growth, Internet traffic is evolving from a relatively steady stream of traffic characteristic of Peer-to-Peer [P2P] traffic to a more dynamic traffic pattern.
In the past few years, service providers have observed a pronounced increase in traffic associated with gaming downloads. Newer consoles such as the Xbox One and PlayStation 4 have sufficient onboard storage to enable gamers to download new games rather than download them on disc. These graphically intense games are large files, and gaming traffic will reach 4 percent of all IP traffic by Furthermore, these downloads tend to occur during peak usage periods, with gaming downloads reaching up to 8 percent of busy hour traffic.
We expect the growth of gaming traffic to continue, and gaming is one of the forms of traffic that will limit the likelihood that video traffic will exceed the projected 82 percent by There are shifts within Internet video traffic itself as well Figure In particular, live Internet video has the potential to drive large amounts of traffic as it replaces traditional broadcast viewing hours. Live video already accounts for 5 percent of Internet video traffic and will grow fold to reach 17 percent by Also, of note is the growth of video surveillance traffic dropcams.
This traffic is of a very different nature than live or on-demand streaming and represents a steady stream of upstream video camera traffic, uploaded continuously from homes and small businesses to the cloud.
Marketing Management, 13th Edition
Global internet video by subsegment Effects of video on traffic symmetry With the exception of short-form video and video calling, most forms of Internet video do not have a large upstream component.
As a result, traffic is not becoming more symmetric, a situation that many expected when user-generated content first became popular. The emergence of subscribers as content producers is an extremely important social, economic, and cultural phenomenon, but subscribers still consume far more video than they produce.
Upstream traffic has been slightly declining as a percentage for several years. It appears likely that residential Internet traffic will remain asymmetric for the next few years. There has been a strong case for P2P as a low-cost Content-Delivery System CDS for many years, yet most content providers and distributors have opted for direct distribution, with the exception of applications such as PPStream and PPLive in China, which offer live video streaming through P2P and have had great success.
If content providers in other regions follow suit, traffic could rapidly become highly symmetric. PC-to-PC video calling is gaining momentum, and the nascent mobile video calling market appears to have promise. If high-end video calling becomes popular, traffic could move toward greater symmetry.
Generally, if service providers provide ample upstream bandwidth, applications that use upstream capacity will begin to appear. We are seeing a trend in which the growth in digital television service that denotes television viewing across all digital platforms cable, IPTV, satellite, etc. Also, in emerging regions mobile video growth rates are even higher because these regions are bypassing fixed connectivity.
This trend again shows that there is increasingly less reliance on STBs managed by service providers for Internet access in general and for video specifically Figure A cord-cutting household generated GB per month in , compared to 82 GB per month for an average household.
This difference occurs because linear television generates much less traffic one stream of video shared across numerous linear-TV households than Internet video, which is unicast to each Internet video device.
Global cord cutting generates 72 percent higher traffic Trend 6: Security analysis Users expect their online experience to be always available and always secure—and their personal and business assets to be safe. The last several years have been easily the most eventful period from a security threat perspective, with many serious data breaches that have been discussed widely in the media.
Given the scope of the monetary and brand damage associated with data breaches, cybersecurity is treated as a business risk rather than merely an IT issue. Advances in technology is the main driver for economic growth but has also led to a higher incidence of cyberattacks. The leading trends such as ecommerce, mobile payments, cloud computing, Big Data and analytics, IoT, AI, machine learning, and social media, all increase cyber risk for users and businesses.
Compounding the problem, the nature of the threats is becoming more diverse.
The list includes Distributed Denial-of-Service DDoS , ransomware, Advanced Persistent Threats APTs , viruses, worms, malware, spyware, botnets, spam, spoofing, phishing, hacktivism and potential state-sanctioned cyberwarfare. There were a total of breaches with a total of nearly The number of records exposed per data breach averaged 39, year-to-date in , according to Identity Theft Resource Center, with the highest number of records exposed in the business category.
There are many methods to breaching, according to the Verizon data breach investigations report. A Distributed-Denial-of-Service DDoS attack occurs when multiple systems flood the bandwidth or resources of a targeted system, usually one or more web servers.
Such an attack is often the result of multiple compromised systems flooding the targeted system with traffic. Infrastructure outages also continue to be a threat with over half of operators experiencing this issue. This was due to cybercriminals exploiting vulnerabilities in the Memcached protocol, resulting in record breaking amplification attacks. This has become a method that is increasingly popular since it does not require malware driven botnets.
Average DDoS attack size in was Mbps, a slight decrease from 1, Mbps in , enough to take most organizations completely offline. However, since Memcached appeared, average attack size has increased 37 percent from 1H to 1H In the top motivation behind DDoS attacks was criminals demonstrating attack capabilities, with gaming and criminal extortion attempts in second and third place, respectively.
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