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For example, Vani , p. Instead of understanding dharma as a norm of Indian culture, which is then sometimes read as reflected in popular Indian culture see, for instance, Uberoi, , we need to understand dharma as a framing device that is negotiated within the novel.
Dharma, as Shivarama Padikkal points out, is one of the foun- dational frames of the Kannada novel. Padikkal , p.
Examining earlyth-century novels like Indirabai and Indira, Padikkal suggests that these fashioned a new femininity within a redefined dharma. In this sense we find the novels representing the becoming of subject that Balibar envisages, the closing of the gap between the citizen and subject. Here we need to specifically mark the liberal nature of the citizen subject who is envisaged by the state. The other set of coordinates are not outside modernity in the sense of being pre-modern but there is something different about their relationship with modernity.
What I wish to present in this article is not merely an arrival at the excess but to give it a name. The performativity of the subject in excess of identity, I suggest, is hinted at in the form of the romance narratives.
This narrative form that constitutes the subject differently gestures to the impasses in the narrative of modernity. By form I mean first, the genre of the romance novel, which can be identified by the particular narrative movement towards couple formation.
Second, form refers to the set of narrative devices used to structure the narrative, structure as different from content. The psychological mode refers to the representation of persistent mental conflicts experienced by Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 21, 1 : 85— 90 Radhika P. The Novels The women novelists were middle-class and except Anupama, Brahmin. However, Anupama was part of a growing Sanskritised middle class.
The writers were well educated except for Indira, who studied only till the third standard. Indira and Anupama belonged to notable families.
Indira came from a rich zamindar family in Shimoga, south Karnataka. Her brother, T. Ramachandra Rao was the noted editor of the Kannada daily newspaper Prajavani. Anupama was a doctor and wife of a renowned writer, Niranjana. She was part of the communist milieu of which her husband was an important member and had socialist leanings herself. The women characters were represented as seeking education not only to be literate but to learn new manners and behaviour, to beautify themselves and dress well, aspiring to new ideals of wifehood and motherhood.
I explore this failure—the ways in which it is enacted and the meanings that we can derive from that. Also, as opposed to the social novels, the romances of the s are mainly set in urban locations and revolve around a female protagonist, focusing on her as an individual whose mental and emo- tional struggles are portrayed. However, they are different from earlier romances, for instance, the novels of Kalyanamma s , in that a there is a failure of couple formation or b if couple formation occurs in the beginning or middle of the novel the rest of the novel focuses on the failure of the romance which does not end in marriage.
This does not diminish the significance of the romance between the couple, which is delineated in great detail. The novels fur- ther represent the dissatisfactions within marriage, particularly dramatis- ing the conflicts and dilemmas of the woman protagonists, which I will analyse below. These novels mostly revolve around middle-class Brahmin women who initially live in a village or small town, then move to another town after marriage Huuvu hannu, Sothu geddavalu, Chinnada panjara or in search of job opportunities Mukti or to study Hannele chiguridaga.
In tandem with the move the protagonist grows either intellectually or as a person. However, even sympathetic feminist critiques have found the novels inadequate in their inability to move beyond the conventions of patriarchy and in implicitly endorsing the institution of marriage Dabbe, ; Sumitrabai, Niranjana, , p.
At another level, in the delineation of marriage and conjugality the authors of the romances critique these ideals as well as that of pativratya or husband worship enjoined by tradition. The narratives show how societal practices which revolve around notions of ideal femininity also contain within themselves contradictions of the same S. Through the novel we see how the ideal and its other are constitutive of each other.
Though the romance novels dramatise the desire for marriage and the romance in the narrative moves towards marriage, this desire should be seen only alongside the crisis in couple formation that the writings present.
However, in contrast to the earlier novels, what is dramatised in the romances of Indira, Triveni, Vani and Anupama is the sundering of the couple and all, except for the novels of Anupama, which I will discuss later, have tragic endings. Either the couple do not unite or marriage is followed by a crisis. Though she falls in love with a colleague towards the end of the novel, she finds that the man has a wife who is mentally ill.
The novel concludes in an open-ended manner with the man informing Amrita about the death of his wife and proposing to Amrita, without however indicating her response. Though the protagonist Manjula has an arranged mar- riage and her friend Malati marries a man she loves, both are unhappy in their marriages.
This scene appears in the narrative as an unusual and strange scene, a bizarre element that disturbs the tenor of the narrative. Marital discord is represented as arising from the dissatisfaction that the woman feels towards the husband and vice versa.
But here they are treating me like a trivial object!
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However, the authorial standpoint wavers throughout while making the critique of patriarchy unlike the later feminist novels of Anupama such as Madhavi Conflict in marriage is situated in the inability of the woman to find support in the frame of niti or dharma to sustain her in her marriage.
There are many occasions when this is pointed out. You tell me, what wrong have I done? Also she was a queen. The conflict between self and dharma can also be seen when Lalita in Himada hu talks about the struggle between her self-esteem ahamb- hava and duty kartavya when she faces the choice between continuing her career or protecting her home A. Let me elaborate. In the reform novels of Thirumalamba and Kalyanamma, conflict occurs between dharma and identity where identity is constituted through education and dharma by the feminine virtues of pativratya, patience and kindness.
The novelists sought to re-establish the earlier ideal through an incorporation of values like education.
This position was different from that of canonical male writers like Masti Venkatesha Iyengar who did not accept the notion of woman as assertive, possessing a self and moving out of the Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 21, 1 : 85— 96 Radhika P.
In contrast, the s women novelists did not unequivocally support the ideal of pativratya. As women subjects did the writers articulate a language different from the developmental-modern vocabulary? The plot itself raises such questions. Chandri is not allowed to marry but forced into the rites of gejje pooje the ritual of anklet wor- ship before the girl enters the profession of prostitution.
However, the plot moves towards an understanding of how even in modern time and space, these possibilities might not be realised. Niranjana, , pp. Having done her botany honours, the protagonist Lalita realises her ambition to become a professor A.
However, placing Hridaya vallabha and Himada hu side by side, it would seem as if the position of the male protagonist in the new nation is more clearly demarcated than that of the woman. That is perhaps why Himada hu ends with the woman giving up her job to look after her family. However, the critique of modernity is inadequately captured in the plot where Chandri is made to die or Lalita has to choose her home over her career.
I suggest that if we locate the critique in the form of the narrative, we get an entirely different picture. We find that though the plot moves towards couple formation, the unfolding of the plot undermines what should be the conclusion.
We saw how the desire for marriage in these narratives has to be read alongside the crisis in conju- gality that occur in the narratives. The portrayal of conflict was a device also deployed by the Navya male novelists writing in the same period s—s. This excess hints at the limits of modernity despite the desire for the modern.
Should the girls in her class, the vagrants on the road call her by dirty names? But which respectable boy will agree to hold the hand of a girl who is the daughter of a prostitute?
Sheela might be beautiful. She might be of good character.
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But will any respectable boy agree to marry her if her mother has sold her body to men? Will his elders agree? It is possible for her to forget the pain of becoming a prostitute if Sheela takes the hand of a respectable boy. A respectable boy will not marry her.
A boy who is not respectable, she will not agree to. That means Sheela will remain unmarried. As long as she lives, she will be able to protect her daughter, even by giving her blood, from the eyes of lustful men. Probably, [like Rama,] Sheela too will ultimately have to take up the very same profession.
Triveni, , pp. In the portrayal of the conflict, the narrative plays on the notion of respectability. Though the notion is invoked in an absolute sense, our knowledge that it is Rama who is speaking and our awareness of the context that caused her to become disreputable only makes it ironic and thus undermines it. The narrative shows that the vicious circle of disrepute in which Rama is placed makes it impossible for her and Sheela to break out of it.
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The only way in which Sheela can become respectable would be to break away from that past. The novel Bekkina kannu revolves around a young girl, Kusuma, who becomes a hysteric because she is deprived of love from her mother who dies, and her father, who after marrying the second time neglects her for his new wife. The stepmother treats Kusuma badly and constantly abuses and beats her.
Kusuma feels alienated and unable to confront her stepmother displaces her anger on her cat Polly whose green eyes resemble those of her stepmother. This excess is not to be read merely as realistic representation— a representation that necessarily follows from having to represent a hysterical woman.
Even Sudha, a girl in the neighbourhood, is at times hysterical and shivers at the sight of Kusuma Triveni, d, p. Importantly then, the narrative space given to the portrayal of hysteri- cal excess and the endless repetition of those spectacles of excess surpass the narrative requirement and make you wonder what the repre- sentation is actually about.
It is as though the hysterical excess is contained in the structure of the narrative itself—the repetitions of words, the flow of the narrative, almost like a rush of words that leap onto each other as they hasten forward. A bizarre element that does not fit into the realist narrative is inserted—the daughter shrieking in disgust when she sees her mother in Chinnada panjara or the cry of veni, vidi, veci I came, I saw, I conquered in Sharapanjara Cage of arrows, The Symbolic, as feminist psychoanalyst Elizabeth Grosz , pp.
One, it is governed according to the imperatives of paternal authority. The Symbolic is the order of representation. In other words the Symbolic denotes a cultural system that everyone necessarily inhabits to be a subject. The Symbolic, as feminist psychoanalyst Elizabeth Grosz , pp. One, it is governed according to the imperatives of paternal authority.
The Symbolic is the order of representation. In other words the Symbolic denotes a cultural system that everyone necessarily inhabits to be a subject. It is the Law of the Father that constitutes subjects as male and female but also binds them by that sub- jectivity. Luce Irigaray gives a twist to the Lacanian Symbolic and argues that it is in effect the Male Symbolic. That is, subjectivity exists in only one form, and that is male the female exists only as the other.
Likewise the order of cultural representation is male the female exists only as a lack or a hole. As Irigaray , p. The novel itself provides different answers. What did she after all lack? It is revealed to readers that the trauma is caused by the rape of the protagonist by a male friend. The hysteria then can be read within a psychoanalytic frame as the surfacing of a repressed trauma, a shame that could not be spoken of.
However, the novel prompts us to ask if there is something more? Irigaray suggests that this residue is unsymbolisable within the existing Symbolic.
It is the undifferentiated unconscious from which identity emerges but which is disavowed Whitford, If this is indeed the case, which is a signalling of a much more profound kind of othering than merely an attitude or a stigma, what does it mean for the non-rational, the woman, to find representation as herself?
Is it at all possible? If so, how? We need to understand that though the residue and magma that Irigaray calls female and non-rational is unsymbolisable within the logic of the existing Symbolic, they however seek symbolisation and in fact find symbolisation.
However, symbolisation of the female and non- rational is of an order that is different from that of the existing Symbolic. Freud shows how unconscious desire finds symbolisation in dreams; however the language, that is, the images and symbols of dreams cannot be understood or deciphered in the same way in which we con- ventionally understand those images and symbols. They exist in another logic or language that has to be deciphered through a different method. They lie in the interspace between what Freud calls the manifest dream content and latent dream thought Freud, , para.
We should not read the Female Symbolic as something that already exists and is waiting to be discov- ered. Nor is it a mere Utopia or a non-discursive abstraction.
It lies in the interstices of and interrupts the dominant Male Symbolic Order and is something to be arrived at through interpretation. In an interesting section, Irigaray describes the Feminine Symbolic as not a mere reversal of or opposition to the Male Symbolic where the woman now is subject.
Triveni herself is avowedly working within a frame of rationality con- demning superstitious beliefs. Bekkina kannu and Sharapanjara explicitly talk about an underlying rationale for hysteria and appeal to the reader to view such cases from a scientific perspective.
Hence, the novels show that psychological disorder needs to be treated by a psychiatrist rather than an exorcist. However, the hysterical excess of the narratives override the scientific, rational explanation that the plots provide and constitute the Female Symbolic.
Hence, the Female Symbolic needs to be understood as delineating the limits of a dominant Symbolic male and rational that is embodied in the developmental-modern language of the state. I would like to specially thank Dr Tejaswini Niranjana, my PhD supervisor and Asha Achuthan, my co-feminist-traveller, conversations with whom helped shape this article. Notes 1. The pocket book kaihothige or kisehothige was so called because of its size, most commonly that of crown 20x15 inches , which could easily fit into the pocket.
It used cheaper newsprint than the regular paperback and was sold at eight annas half a rupee unlike the paperback that was priced at one rupee. Hence, it was also known as the eight-anna book entaane pustaka. I have investigated the pocket book phenomenon in my doctoral thesis Radhika, All the translations from Kannada to English in this article have been done by the author herself.
The novels by these women writers have been continuously reprinted, till , numbering between four and nine editions. Modernity refers to a series of historical changes in relation to ideas, prac- tices and institutions that emerged with colonialism and that transformed Indian society in a fundamental manner. One of the most important features of this modernity was the emergence of the nation state and state apparatuses, such as the legal system, that articulated notions of identity, citizenship and rights.
Modernity also includes articulations of selfhood or subjectivity that conflict with or are different from these notions. Habermas , p. Feminist scholar Nancy Fraser argued that the Habermasian public sphere was bourgeois and male, and excluded certain sections of society such as women and the working class.
The Navya school was established in by Gopalakrishna Adiga. Some of the other important writers of the school are Ramachandra Sharma and U. They were influenced by English literary modernists, especially writers like T. Eliot and Ezra Pound. Since I translate the titles of the novels here, I use only Kannada titles throughout the article.
Also, I use first names or pen names of writers, as is common in both academic and popular Kannada discussions. Deshpande , p. In the most general terms, development-as-ideology helps articulate state, nation and economy, and plays a crucial role in securing the coherence of the new post-colonial nations. In the context of Karnataka, it has been argued that non-Brahmin elites who were articulating a politics based on representation and identity caste, religion or language before independence consented to an ideology of Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 21, 1 : 85— Inaugurating a Feminine Public development post-independence as a means of building a regional identity Thirumal and Smriti, , p.
By the time the Maternity Benefit Bill was debated in the mids, many favoured the bill, the only question remaining was whether it should be an eight-week leave or less PMLC, Butler, , p.
Anupama in Vadhuvige kaivimathu A. I will teach you every afternoon and night. Tomorrow, I will download you a new slate and book. I will teach you.
You also learn from Manda, ok? This notion of the couple, for instance, is present in the poems of Anandakanda, which celebrate the modern couple and conjugal love through an imaging of the man exhorting the woman to be his companion in their journey together from darkness to light. The classical exponent of this form of poetry that celebrated the couple was K.
Narasimhaswamy whose collection Mysore mallige Mysore jasmine was very popular and poems from which were later used in a film of the same name. The social novels talk about the life of a community or neighbourhood and delineate problems faced by the community. Drawing on earlier studies by Srinivasa Havanur and T. Clark, Shivarama Padikkal classifies the early Kannada novels into three groups according to the type of narrative—the historical romance aithihasika ramya , the social novel samajika and the romance ramya kathana , pp.
In the novel Huuvu hannu, though there is no direct elaboration of the crisis in couple formation, I use it as an instance where we see the undoing of the binary between the ideal and its other. Padikkal emphasises the importance of love in the early Kannada romances. In this respect, the Imaginary is not the opposite of but belongs to reality.
Together with the Symbolic and the Real, the Imaginary is one of the three orders regulating human biological, interpersonal and social life.
He points out that images that constitute the manifest dream content may yield one set of meanings or might even seem nonsensical in a conventional reading. It is only by interpreting the images in a different way that the latent dream thought can be arrived at Freud, Slavoj Zizek , p.
References Niranjana, A. Vadhuvige Kivimaathu Advice to the Bride. Bangalore: Rashmi. Balibar, E. Cadava, P.
Nancy Eds , Who comes after the subject? New York: Routledge. Butler, J. London: Routledge. Dabbe, V. Gayatri Ed. Bangalore: Jagruti Prakashana. Deshpande, S. Contemporary India: A sociological view. New Delhi: Viking. Fraser, N. Rethinking the public sphere: A contribution to the critique of actually existing democracy. Calhoun Ed.
Cambridge: MIT Press. Freud, S. The interpretation of dreams. Brill Trans. New York: The Macmillan Company. Retrieved from www. Hello sir, Many thanks for such a painstaking collection of Sri Tyagaraja krithis at one place and also for the wonderful explanation and..
Prayers to Lord Narasimhadeva. The earliest versions of Jain Agamas known were composed. Devi Mahatmyam Translated by P. This book which relates the story of how the Devi.
This PDF Application is very fast, light weight and easy to use. Tulasi Das, Hindi literature. Basavanna and Allama Prabhu,..
Kannada E books of dli. Kannada Ramayana Sundara Kanda. Sai Baba Bhajan Texts. Sacred Book of the Sikhs. You are the One Lord worshipped by all the religions.Book Author. Dear Mahesh, Thanks a lot. The performativity of the subject in excess of identity, I suggest, is hinted at in the form of the romance narratives. Zizek, S. Hi Mahesh, Thanks alot,i like books alot as a good book can make my mind.
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