IS (part 1): Indian Standard. CERAMIC TILES - METHODS OF TEST,. SAMPLING AND BASIS FOR ACCEPTANCE. PART 1 DETERMINATION OF. IS (): Ceramic Tiles-Methods of Test, Sampling and Basis of Acceptance, Part 1: Determination of. Dimensions and Surface Quality [CED 5. IS (): Ceramic Tiles - Methods of test,. Sampling and Basis of Acceptance, Part Determination of scratch hardness of surface according to.
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IS (): Ceramic Tiles-Methods of test, Sampling and Basis of Acceptance, Part 2: Determination of water absorption (see IS Parts 1 to 15). Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan "The Right to Information, The Right to Live" Jawaharlal Nehru 'Step Out From the Old to the New" IS to 15 (). of the STI, in case of any failure. 1) DIMENSIONS AND SURFACE. QUALITY. Table 5 to. 9. IS IS (Part 1). -. - a) Length and Width.
If removed. If removed surface corresponds to Class A. If the lines are removed the surface corresponds to Class A. Swimming Pool Salts. Record the result for each test specimen with each stain solution. These are glazes for which pencil test andor reflection test are not applicable. Record the result for each test specimen with each test solution The test report shall contain the following: Visual changes on the proper surface result of the test specified in 7. Record the result for each test specimen with each test solution.
Acids and Alkalis 8. This pressure is to be maintained for 2 h. IS Part 9: Then turn off the steam source or the heat supply in the case of directly heated autoclaves. Then the pressure is allowed to fall rapidly as possible to atmospheric -temperature and the test specimens are allowed to cool to room.
Remove test specimens to the laboratory atmosphere. The cut pieces should be as large as possible. Number of test specimens and Description of the crazing drawing or photograph. All test specimens shall be free from crazes at the commencement of the test. Number of test specimens.
The tiles shall be free from dust. All sides of tiles are exposed to freezing during 50 freeze-thaw cycles. Weigh 24 3. After the fifth day allow the tiles to remain under water for a firther period of 2 days so that they shall be filly immersed for 3 days. IS Part Dab relief surface with chamois leather. The temperature shall be as uniform as possible in the freezer and it shall have air circulation measured in the empty freezer with a maximum air velocity of4 tis.
Add water so as to completely immerse the tiles and allow to stand for 24 h. Add additional quantities of water at subsequent 24 h intervals so that a tiher one-fifth of the height shall be immersed each 24 h with the fifth and final addition ofwater add sufficient to immerse the tiles under a 50 mm head of water. Place the chamois leather on a flat surface and lightly dry each side of each tile in mm. There shall be a minimum time of immersion of 3 days.
Place the tile with thermocouple in the middle of the test samples. Leave the tiles under water for 1 h before removing them. Ideally testing shall then be proceeded by automated fieezethaw cycling. Wether automated or not the temperature time relationship shall be within the range defined in Fig. It shall be one considered to have repressive properties of that test sample.
Men there is no temperature reference tile the air temperature shall be measured. Only in the case of repeated tests with similar test specimens can this be omitted and then occasional check shall be made with a thermocouple in a tile. IS Part each tile. The reference method to be used for arbitration shall be the method of progressive water impregnation by capillarity. The temperature of the thermocouple defines the temperature of the entire tile under test. Drill a 3 mm diameter hole from the centre of one edge to a maximum distance of 40 mm from the edge of the tile.
This operation shall take 30 min maintain the evacuation at the same pressure for a further 30 min and then restore atmospheric pressure.
If it is not possible to drill a hole in this way. Insert thermocouple or other suitable measuring device and seal the hole with a tiny piece of thermally insulating material for example. Repeat this procedure of natural immersion for further periods of 24 h each until the change in mass between two successive weighing shall be less than 0.
They maybe examined at the intermediate stages to expedite the reporting if there is a reason to believe that they might sustain damage relatively early in the test. The cycle shall be completed afier 6 h. IS - Part Water content obtained afier the freeze-thaw test. The ideal freeze-thaw cycle in the tile is indicated by dotted line and actual freeze-thaw cycle shall be within the zone delineated by the two other line. The final water content expressed as a percentage by mass is determined from: Record all damage that is observed on the glazed or proper surfaces and the edges of the tiles.
The thichess of the rubber is 9 mm and the height of the suace under the holder is Test specimens with smaller facial dimensions shall be fastened close together on a suitable suppoding material. Tight source is screened to avoid direct viewing. The test specimens are held down with the aid of metal holders which are provided with rubber seals see Fig.
Public Safety Standards of the Republic of India
There shall be equal distances between each adjacent position. The internal diameter of the holders is 83 mm. The distance between the centre of the supporting plate and the centre of each position shall be mm. The supporting plate rotates at 27 6. The dimensions of the box shallbe61 cm x 61 cmx61 cm and the inner faces shall be painted a neutral grey.
Edge effects at the narrow joints shall be ignored. The hole may then be sealed to prevent loss from the abrasive load. In addition. The number of revolutions of the preset counter required for each abrasion stage of the test is Introduce the abrasive load into the holder through a-hole in its upper surface. One possible calibration method is given in the Annex A. Remove one test specimen afier Each abrasion stage and continue the test until failure is observed.
If the. Classification Abrasion stage occurred. Note the number of revolutions at which any change in the area that has been subjected to abrasion can be readily distinguished. Upon agreement subsequently test abraded tiles which have passed Before each test. Failure Visible at Revolutions 2 1 2 3 4 5 IS Part test specimens are stained with iron oxide.
Immediately rinse under the running water and dry. The consensus of at least three observers is required. If the result is not the same. One of the following methods can be used. Other relevant properties may be determined by agreement during the execution of the test procedures In order to be classified as Class 5. The additional information. If there is no visual failure after 12 revolutions but if stains cannot be removed by any standard procedure the tile shall be Class 4.
View with the naked eye or with the aid of spectacles. If any difficulty is experienced in obtaining stable initial gloss values. Calibration of the abrasion apparatus maybe performed by measuring either the loss in mass see A Abrade the specimen for revolutions. Calculate the percentage loss in gloss for each specimen and the mean loss in gloss. The float bath side exhibits a slight fluorescence. Measure the abraded area of each specimen.
Eight float glass test specimens measuring 1. NOTE — Ultraviolet light in the region nm to nm will damage the eyes md suitable protective UV — filter goggles must be worn. The abrasion apparatus is satisfactory. The float bath side is identified by-its tin content.
Abrade the specimens for revolutions. Even-Flow Funnel 7. Test Specimen 4. Storage Hopper for Abrasive Material 6. CounteNeight FIG. Value 5. Fixing Screw 3. Test Specimen Clamp 2. Test each specimen in at Chord length 1 of each grooye to the nearest 0. Ensure that the feed of abrasive material into the grinding zone is uniform at a rate of at least l 00 revolutions.
Table 1. The pressure with which test specimens are held against the steel disc is determined by calibrating the apparatus againstAustrian Standard Granite. Yolume V in cubic millimetre. The pressure is adjusted such that. Before testing.. The total fines of particle size. A clamping device is shown in Fig. The test unit is clamped firmly in a position so that the dropping steel ball impinges on the centre of the horizontal tile surface.
Thoroughly mix the constituents in a mechanical mixer and trowel into moulds of the required size. TEST 4. A suitable adhesive consist of. Throughout the remaining conditioning. The assembly face of the concrete shall have an absorption of surface water afier 4 h in the range of 0.
The aggregate shall be gravel sand of O to 8 mm particle size with a continuous grading curve between the limits A and B in Fig. Indeed, the primary cilium is analogous to a specialized cellular antenna because multiple signaling pathways converge on it to relay extracellular information [ 7 — 10 ]. Not surprisingly, loss or impairment of the primary cilium leads to a large group of genetic disorders called ciliopathies [ 11 — 13 ] and has been associated with cancer progression and tumorigenesis [ 10 , 14 , 15 ].
Problematically, current assays assume that the mere presence of cilia, regardless of stage, is equivalent to the presence of a cellular antenna. Many studies have investigated the role, function and biogenesis of primary cilia, but have not probed whether the cilium is at an early i.
Here, we demonstrate a new facile assay that can quickly and successfully distinguish between different stages of ciliogenesis. We show that most cilia are not fully emerged and, thus, cannot be assumed to act as cellular antennae. Current models of ciliogenesis are founded on seminal transmission electron microscopy EM studies by Sergei Sorokin in the s [ 16 — 18 ].
In the case of oblong tiles, use separate instruments of the appropriate dimensions to measure lengths and width. Measure to an accuracy of 0. The dial gauge 2? The plunger of the dial gauge B shall also be 5 mm from the comer of the tile on the side being measured.
IS Parti: Tiles mat have relief on the proper surface preventing measurements on that surface shall, where possible, be measured on the back.
Although only one dial gauge is shown in the figure, there are three on the instrument, located at the centre of one side, at the centre of the tile and at one corner.
To measure smooth-surfaced tiles the support studs are 5 mm in diameter. In order to obtain meaningful results for other tile surfaces, suitable support studs shall be used. Rotate the tile, if square, to obtain four measurements of each properties.
In the case of oblong tiles, use separate instruments of the appropriate dimensions. Record the maximum centre curvature, edge curvature and warpage for each tile. Determine centre curvature in the same manner but along diagonals.
Warpage is expressed as a percentage of the length of the diagonal. Cracks, nipped edges and nipped corners cannot be intentional effects. Illuminate them with an even light intensity of lux at the surface of the tiles and check the light intensity at the centre and each comer of the area of tiles under test, 7. With polygonal and other non-rectangular tiles, the length and width shall be those of the enclosing rectangles. Table 1 Tile Mass: Accuracy of Measurement SI No. MauofTilei Accuracy of Meaiurements g g 1 2 3 to 0.
Maintain the water level of 50 mm above the tiles throughout the test. Then remove the source of heat and allow the tiles to cool, still completely immersed in this water overnight. IS Part 2: Perform the weighing by placing the specimen in the wire loop, halter, or basket see 3. Before actually weighing, counterbalance the scale with the wire loop, halter, basket in place and immerse in water to the same depth as is used when the specimens are in place.
Calculate the bulk density as follows: NOTE — For determination of bulk density by boiling water method, the specimen size should not be more than 0. IS Part 3: Cut a test specimen from the centre of each tile of the greatest possible length of up to mm with a minimum width of 35 mm and the thickness that of the tile. Alternatively, the size of the test specimen should be according to the requirement of the apparatus.
Then allow them to cool in a desiccator at ambient temperature. II IS Part 5: Depending on the water absorption of the tiles, different procedures tests with or without immersion are used unless there is an agreement to the contrary.
Any other suitable apparatus may be used. Covering the aluminium plate is a layer of aluminium grains approximately 5 mm thick with diameters in the range of 0. All the test specimens shall be free from defects at the commencement of test.
The methylene blue solution described in 5. Repeat this procedure 10 times. To assist in detecting defects, a suitable stain such as 1 percent aqueous solution of methylene blue containing a small quantity of wetting agent taay be brushed onto the glazed surfaces of the test specimens. After 1 min, wipe off the stain with a damp cloth. IS No. Title Part 2: Methods of test for vulcanized rubbers: One rod shall be slightly pivotable see Fig. This rod shall also be slightly pivotable see Fig.
However, it may be necessary to cut exceptionally large tiles that is those greater than mm in length and some non-rectangular shapes in order to fit them in the apparatus. Rectangular test specimens of the largest possible size shall then be cut, having their centres coinciding with the centres of tiles. For all other rectangular tiles the greater side is at right angles to the support rods. NOTE — The calculation of the modulus of rupture is based on a rectangular cross-section.
In the case of tiles of variable thickness along the broken edge, approximate results only are produced. The shallower the relief, the more exact is it possible to make the approximations. Use in a concentration of 10 g dry substance per litre.
The test solution shall be prepared immediately before use. Cautiously add the sulphuric acid to water, cooling the solution and keeping it well mixed during addition. Test specimens with surface defects shall be excluded from the test. The non-cut side of each test specimen shall be fully immersed.
Remove the test specimens from the water and dab with wet but wrung out chamois leather. Secondarily examine the parts of the cut edges that were immersed.
Use in a concentration of 1 g dry substance per litre. NOTE — The soap can be prepared from concentrated sodium hydroxide solution and oleic acid in the proportion of 2. The bottom edge of the cylinder shall be ground flat and perpendicular to the vertical axis of the cylinder.
Variations from the experimental 18 IS Part 8: Place an approximately 30 mm diameter convex watch glass on the applied drop in order to spread it to an approximately circular area.
Allow to remain for 24 h and then rinse the surface with running water and wipe with a damp cloth. If a stain remains, thoroughly clean with a solution of the standard cleaning agent. Turn the cylinder upside down onto a fresh part of the glazed surface as shown in Fig. Remove the cylinder and clean the glazed surface with a grease solvent.
Replace the test solution after 4 days. After 3 more days, remove the cylinder and clean the glazed surface with a grease solvent. In order to assess whether the pencil test is applicable, draw several lines with an HB pencil on the untreated parts of the glazed surfaces and attempt to remove the marks with a dry cloth.
If the pencil marks cannot be removed, the test specimens can only be assessed visually and the classification scheme of Fig. For all other test specimens, the assessment shall be carried out according to 7. If there is a visible effect, perform the reflection test see 7. If removed, the surface corresponds to Class AA.
If not removed, attempt to remove the pencil lines by means of a soft damp cloth which has been dampened by dipping in distilled or de-ionized water and then wringing out.
If removed surface corresponds to Class A, if not removed to Class B. Position the tile so that the image fall simultaneously on both treated and untreated part and determine whether it is any less clear in the treated part.
If the lines are removed the surface corresponds to Class A; if not removed to Class B. Record the result for each test specimen with each stain solution.
Record the result for each test specimen with each test solution 8. Record the result for each test specimen with each test solution. Then the pressure is allowed to fall rapidly as possible to atmospheric temperature and the test specimens are allowed to cool to room.If the lines are removed the surface corresponds to Class A.
Although only one dial gauge is shown in the figure, there are three on the instrument, located at the centre of one side, at the centre of the tile and at one corner. This operation shall take 30 min maintain the evacuation at the same pressure for a further 30 min and then restore atmospheric pressure.
Keywords: Primary cilia, Ciliogenesis, Light microscopy, Ciliary pocket, Exocytosis Background Primary cilia are highly conserved, single hair-like organelles that extend from the surface of most human cells [ 1 ]. This operation shall take 30 min maintain the evacuation at the same pressure for a further 30 min and then restore atmospheric pressure.
Visual changes on the proper surface as a result of the test specified in 7.
NOTE — For determination of bulk density by boiling water method. Printed at Simco Priming Press, Delhi.