Treatment Guideline for Homoeopathic Medicine. Founder of Homoeopathy. Dr. Christian Fredrich Samuel Hahnemann. (). 2 Challenges for quality control of homeopathic medicines. .. 18 (http://nccam. raudone.info, accessed 15 September. ). SECTION 7 – REMEDIES OF ACUTE CONDITIONS. HOMEOPATHIC REMEDIES AND THEIR COMMON HERB OR FLOWER NAMES.
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remedy, law of similars, rebound effect, new homeopathic remedy. images/ Consultas/Relatorios//raudone.info The United. Illegal to stop conventional medicines. • Negligence filed for choosing alternative medicine. • Libel filed for criticizing conventional medicine. • Homeopathy left. Best of all, many homeopathic remedies are ideal for handling many of life's little everyday health con- cerns, whether it's a bout with hay fever, a sprained ankle.
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Ultra-pure water was kept in tightly closed polypropylene bottles. The rise in conductivity occurs within minutes as ultra-pure water picks up CO2 from exposure to air and ions from exposure to glass, and we considered it to be unavoidable. Remedies Two animal Sepia and Lachesis , two plant Ignatia and Lycopodium and two mineral remedies Natrum Muriaticum and Argentum Nitricum , all of which occur commonly in clinical homeopathy, were used for the project.
Commercial remedies were obtained from Helios Pharmacy [ 24 ] and from Washington Homeopathic [ 25 ]. Both pharmacies are widely considered to make quality products that give good clinical results. Helios remedies are regarded by many to be among the best homeopathic remedies in the world. Staff at both pharmacies made the 12 C and 30 C remedies via the Hahnemann process in washed and rinsed vials using distilled deionized water at each dilution, starting from a standard mother tincture MT.
For the C potencies, a C potency in ethanol-water "off the shelf" was used as the starting point for five serial dilutions and succussions in deionized distilled water. Likewise, 1 M and 10 M potencies were derived from "library" C and C potencies made in ethanol-water.
It was a consensus among homeopathic practitioners that despite the switch from ethanol-water to water, this was a valid way of generating C and higher potency remedies. Upon receipt, commercial remedies were stored in the bottles in which they were sent, at room temperature, in a box in a dark cupboard. Each pharmacy also provided an unsuccussed water control.
We also made our own mineral remedies up to the 12 C potency starting from MT's consisting of a hand-made 1 M NaCl solution and a stock bottle of 0. To make a remedy series, twelve 12 mL capped borosilicate glass vials were labeled 1 C through 12 C, and to each was added 4 mL water.
Two drops of MT were added to the first and it was succussed, then 2 drops of the 1 C were added to the next vial and it was succussed, and so on. Transfers were via sterilized Pasteur pipettes. Vials and pipettes were not re-used. Succussion consisted of strokes of forcefully pounding the closed vials held in the fist against a rubber mouse pad on a counter top. Succussed water to be used as a control was made the same way. Over the course of the project, seven series of Nat Mur potencies and six of Arg Nitr potencies were made.
Remedies were made less than 24 hours in advance of their scheduled testing times. They were placed into NMR tubes and readied for analysis within an hour of being produced.
The tubes generally waited overnight in a light-resistant foil-wrapped container at room temperature before undergoing analysis. The marker served several purposes: it provided a reference line for zeroing the chemical shift scale, it provided a reference peak for comparing concentrations, and its sharpness and shape gave feedback about the accuracy of the shimming process.
By carefully varying the marker concentration we also determined the method's limits of detection. Shimming was done manually for Z1 through Z7 and for first and second order XY magnets, using the lock signal. Locking, shimming and presat frequency optimization were repeated each time a tube was inserted. Between and transients were collected for each sample. Start-to-finish time for each tube was typically around 35 minutes. Randomization Randomization and blinding are among the recommendations in Ref.
We did not conduct strict randomization, but we did intentionally "mix up" the samples in some respects. We labeled all NMR tubes at the outset and we deliberately changed around which tubes were used for controls and for remedies, in case tube-specific effects were to occur.
On most days when we were analyzing remedies we included at least one control, and we always ran the control neither first nor last, in case a time-related trend or drift were to influence the results.
Our plan was this: if any signals appeared which seemed to be occurring significantly more often in remedies than in controls, the studies would be followed up with strictly randomized, blinded trials to verify those particular signals. If no significant differences were found, then strict randomization could not alter the outcome, and the follow-up step would be unnecessary. Results We analyzed a total of 57 remedy samples, 5 succussed water controls, and 41 unaltered water controls. Of this total, 28 samples were non-commercial i.
Because the details of the protocol evolved over the course of the project, it could be argued that this total represents the combination of many different experiments.
Realizing this, we made a point toward the end of the project, of applying what we considered to be our best methodology to screen a set of what were arguably the best remedies. These 18 trials are included in the 57 for the purposes of discussion.
Spectra can be conveniently split into those obtained during listed by sample and date in Table 1, Additional File 1 and the Helios screening run listed in Table 2, Additional File 1. Expected and unexpected signals Expected signals that were seen in all spectra included the large water signal peaking at 4.
The water signal is so dominating that small peaks between approximately 4. The focus of this project was to look for discrete peaks other than these expected peaks. Combining the spectra, there were 35 positions where a discrete signal occurred that was not among these expected signals.
These positions are listed in Table 3, Additional File 1. Signals that had the same structure i. This assumption could be challenged, but it would not affect our overall conclusions.
We therefore examined each of the 35 "unexpected" positions to see if we could offer an explanation for why signals occurred there. Artifacts Fifteen of the 35 signals were classified as artifacts, i. A signal was dismissed as artifact if it could not be phased consistent with the marker peak. Artifacts were further classified as either "consistent" or "intermittent".
The consistent artifacts occurred in more than half of all samples and throughout the eighteen months when our data was collected. Consistent artifacts were seen at 3. Signals at positions 8.
We labeled the consistent artifacts as C1, C2, and C3. These artifacts tended to be small, often little more than bumps or wiggles in the baseline. With the marker peak phased to go up i.
An artifact that occurred repeatedly could have different behaviors in different spectra. Table 3, Additional File 1 indicates whether each artifact was downgoing d , biphasic b , or upgoing u , or whether more than one behavior was seen. The criterion for classification as artifact was that a signal was downgoing or biphasic in at least some of the spectra where it was seen. Half of the intermittent artifacts were seen in only one spectrum each.
Those that occurred repeatedly demonstrated a "burst" pattern in the sense that they were present for spectra collected on a single day or during an interval of weeks or months, but were not seen at other times. For instance, the artifact R5 occurred only on 4-Jun and was seen in every spectrum obtained that day the control as well as the remedies: Table 2, Additional File 1.
Contaminants Signals that were consistently upgoing could be artifacts or they could be measuring something actually present in the sample.
Among such signals, some were evidence of contamination by small organic molecules. Seven signals were positively identified, and an eighth was given a probable assignment.
Zacharias [ 29 , 30 ] raised the issue that some amount of contamination was probably unavoidable in remedies, and that it could affect the outcome of studies of remedies.
In our spectra signals representing contamination by small organic molecules were frequently seen. Long soaking of the NMR tubes in water between uses and exercising extra care to avoid hand contact with the remedies decreased but did not eliminate the occurrence of these two contaminants.
The fact that its signal is a doublet with the characteristic 5 Hz coupling constant assists with the identification, and improves one's confidence that one is seeing a real signal and not just noise that happens to occur at the chemical shift of lactate. The quartet would have been a nice confirmation of the lactate identification, but it could not be seen above noise. One signal, an upgoing singlet at 1. Its base was broader by a factor of four than the other singlets seen, and despite its trace size we could often make out that it had a symmetric stepped shape like a ziggurat.
We did not find anywhere listed the chemical shift of ethylmethylsulfoxide, but the ethyl's methyl group of the very similar molecule ethylmethylketone resonates at 1.
We gave it the identifier 'X' in Table 3. The ethanol signal, a triplet at 1. The ratio between the peak areas of ethanol's methyl triplet at 1.
In Table 2, Additional File 1 the range of ratios is 1. The proximity of the variably-shaped artifact near 3. None contained detectable lactate, but we sometimes saw acetone or methanol CH3OH, 3. Because the samples prepared on site never contained detectable ethanol, methanol, or acetone excepting the added acetone markers , and all samples were analyzed by the same procedure, it is safe to conclude that the Helios samples came with these contaminants.
While we admit that our procedures and lab technique were apparently introducing some extraneous acetate and formate, the Helios remedies' levels of these ions typically ran higher than the levels seen in remedies prepared on site medians of 55 and 44 versus a maximum of about 30 for on site remedies. We deduce that the source of these contaminants in Helios remedies was at least partially from the remedies themselves, i.
The three Helios remedies that we examined using DMSO-d6 contained ethanol, acetate, and formate as well, and one had methanol, but for those runs we did not add a measured marker and precise concentrations were not determined Table 1, Additional File 1. Of the eight Washington Homeopathic remedies that we analyzed and the Washington control, all had ethanol and acetate, all but the control had formate, seven had acetone, two had methanol, and six had lactate.
Unexplained signals Twelve positions for upgoing singlets could neither be ruled out as artifacts nor assigned definitely to any known small organic contaminant. Six of the unexplained group occurred in just one spectrum each.
Those that occurred repeatedly exhibited the same kind of temporal burst distribution that was seen for the intermittent artifacts. The only exception was U1, which was seen on 2-Jan and again on May; this may be an example where two different signals coincidentally had similar shapes and chemical shifts and were lumped together.
Internal consistency of the instrument might further be improved by rephrasing the few items prescribing indicators 1 and 3 and patient care indicator 2 that had relatively low item-corrected total correlations. Further validation in other samples and more specific statistical Rasch analyses are required to confirm whether the sequence of the items requires readjustment in future.
The prescribing indicators of homeopathy are performances derived from the prescription records and case notes. They are not absolute measures, and so, poor performance, as evaluated, should be an indication for investigation and not automatic castigation.
Indicators are not exact measures; there will be some variation for good reasons, reflecting the difficulty of any guideline being relevant to all cases. Additionally, inevitable incorporation of central tendency bias and acquiescence bias arising from the use of Likert scale responses into the analysis could not be eliminated. Furthermore, the study was undertaken in an India-based homeopathic school, making the generalizability of the results unclear.
Future similar studies investigating the matter under question are welcome from other homeopathic schools in India and abroad. However, at present, as no standardized and validated measures for homeopathic prescribing exist, we believe that these indicators are the best available tool purporting the purpose.
In comparison with the previous study, [ 3 ] individualized homeopathic encounters increased from However, all other prescribing indicators reflected a dismal performance — record on ongoing therapies decreased from Case records and diagnosis were merged together as one indicator in this study.
Results were somewhat similar in patient care indicators also.
An increase was observed in the following: Proper dispensing of drugs from Labeling of drugs further dropped from 5. Wide deviations from the given set of standards in any homeopathic practice setting can not be considered acceptable and should be subjected to investigation and action. If these data are to be used for national benchmarking, practice settings achieving a low standard should be encouraged to achieve at least the standards of the better performing settings.
Through studies using these newly developed indicators for homeopathy, it may be possible to evaluate the conditions of services offered by an institution. Thus, the indicators can be used to help the healthcare settings obtain better organizational structure, improve pharmaceutical prescribing, and raise the overall level of homeopathic healthcare practices in West Bengal, India.
Some indicators may need to be revised or updated, especially to improve the internal consistency. Thus, a prescription management regulation needs to be promulgated for homeopathic practitioners. Nikhil Saha, Principal in-Charge, is acknowledged for allowing us to carry out the project successfully in his instituiton.
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Abstract A preliminary version of the homeopathic prescribing and patient care indicators was available. Homeopathy, Patient care indicators, Prescribing indicators, Reliability, Validity. Participation criteria Inclusion criteria were patients 18 years and above, completing their physician's and pharmacist's consultation, giving written informed consent, and being ready to share their prescription information. Methodology The audit involved documentation of current drug regimens and analysis of case notes.
Statistical analysis Different computational websites were used for the purpose. Open in a separate window. Table 3 Item-corrected total correlations and internal consistency of the indicators.
Table 4 Discriminant validity of the items of the instrument.
Helios Homeopathy - helios.co.uk
Prescription pattern study of the drugs used in tertiary hospitals of the Bilaspur region. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. Prescribing habits of physicians in Medical College, Calcutta.The only exception was U1, which was seen on 2-Jan and again on May; this may be an example where two different signals coincidentally had similar shapes and chemical shifts and were lumped together.
With the marker peak phased to go up i. Long soaking of the NMR tubes in water between uses and exercising extra care to avoid hand contact with the remedies decreased but did not eliminate the occurrence of these two contaminants.
Preparations at concentrations below 4X are considered an important part of homeopathic heritage. However Aabel and coworkers' recent study [ 11 ] found no differences between remedies and controls. Helios remedies are regarded by many to be among the best homeopathic remedies in the world.
Exchanges of surface hydrogens could also occur rapidly without losing the cluster geometry.