Gordon Allport's theory is considered to be one of the more scientific theories which has put forward the concept of traits in understanding personality. He takes . trayed Gordon Allport as both the originator and the principal exponent of the doctrine In general, however, Mischel portrayed trait theory as oblivious to situa -. by Gordon W. Allport (). Dartmouth College . answered explicitly, although both are vital to the theory that traits are built through conditioning and.
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C. George Boeree: Personality Theories Gordon Allport. Index. Index. 2. Biography. 3. Theory. 4. The proprium. 4. Traits or dispositions. 5. Psychological. Report by Maica S. Pineda MA Clinical Psychology - AUF GS Overview Emphasis on the uniqueness of the individual Objection to trait and factor theories. Learning Theory, Personality Theory, & Clinical Research: The Kentucky Allport, Floyd H. & Allport, Gordon W, Personality Traits: Their Classificiation.
The description of personality: Principles and findings in a factor analysis.
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Brief Biography of Gordon Allport
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3.2 Personality.pdf - PERSONALITY Cardinal Gordon Allport...
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Allport became convinced that depth psychology might plunge too deeply, and that psychologists should consider manifest motives before digging into the unconscious Allport, Allport found graduate school quite easy, and in he received his Ph. However, he was unable to find any colleagues who shared his interest in a humanistic approach to the study of personality. Thus, he had to chart his own path.
His first paper, published with his brother, was on classifying and measuring personality traits. Allport then received a fellowship that allowed him to spend 2 years studying in Germany and England. Allport also moved to Dartmouth College that year. In he and Floyd published a test for measuring dominant and submissive tendencies, but they never collaborated again.
Although they helped each other from time to time, their psychological perspectives were simply too different as their careers progressed Allport, In Allport returned to Harvard, where he remained for the rest of his career. It was his ambition at the time to give a psychological definition to the field of personality. He certainly helped to accomplish that task, but it should also be noted that another landmark personality text, with a similar goal, was published the same year by Ross Stagner, entitled Psychology of Personality Stagner, ; for a discussion of the significance of these two books see Craik, ; Stagner, Somewhat unfairly, Allport is often recognized for having published the first personality textbook, and Stagner is overlooked.
However, Stagner was quite young at the time only 28 years old. Accordingly, Allport was well-established in his field, and Stagner cites earlier work by both Gordon and Floyd Allport numerous times in his textbook. He spent some time working on the problem of morale among the American people, and he wrote a daily column for the Boston Traveler that focused, in part, on rumors.
An important aspect of rumors was those rumors designed to enhance prejudice and group antagonism. Given his lifelong interest in social ethics, Allport flourished in this new environment, remaining active in its administration throughout his career.
Trait theory: Psychology
With regard to the latter, Allport had published The Use of Personal Documents in Psychological Science in , and after using a collection of personal letters reflecting a mother-son relationships as lecture aids for many years, he eventually published Letters from Jenny in Cabot, a wealthy Boston philanthropist, was also a professor of cardiology and social ethics at Harvard.
Allport died in , 1 month shy of his seventieth birthday, leaving behind many unfinished books, articles, and two psychological tests.
He was the first personality psychologist elected president of APA, and a survey placed him second only to Freud as a personality theorist whose work was directly applicable to clinical practice. However, one award stood out for him, and it is the only one he mentions in his autobiography.
At the XVII International Congress of Psychology, fifty-five of his former doctoral students gave him a two-volume set of their own writings, with an inscription thanking him for respecting their individuality. In that same autobiography, which was actually published after his death, he acknowledged a small number of personality theorists whom he felt were on the right path toward understanding human life, including Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, and Henry Murray.
In addition, because of his specific focus on personality itself, he is also viewed as the founder of personality psychology as a distinct discipline.
His entire approach to psychology, and more specifically to personality, was born of his strong devotion to social ethics. Because his psychology carried with it that devotion to social ethics, he wrote one of the most famous books on prejudice, in which he suggested that the future role of psychology in understanding this disturbing inclination of people everywhere must be based on values. Since his approach to studying and teaching psychology emphasized the value and uniqueness of each person, he is considered to have been a humanistic psychologist, even though he is seldom grouped with Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow instead, he is grouped with other trait theorists.
Psychology, too, ordinarily treats him as something to be brushed aside so the main business of accounting for the uniformity of events can get under way…With the intention of supplementing this abstract portrait by one that is more life-like, a new movement within psychological science has gradually grown up.
It attempts in a variety of ways and from many points of view to depict and account for the manifest individuality of mind. This new movement has come to be known in America as the psychology of personality. What is Personality and What Are Traits? Allport provides an interesting history of the use of the term persona, including a set of definitions written by Cicero B.
These and other definitions of persona represent a contradiction, that persona, or personality in psychological terms, is both something vital and internal and yet also something external and false. Thus, it is dynamic, not static. The systems include habits, attitudes, sentiments, and dispositions of various kinds.
Most important, however, are the traits, which may be either latent or active. The systems mentioned above can be viewed as determining tendencies. However, Allport mentioned this aspect in anticipation of his later discussion of individual vs. For humans, we are not simply reactive, as plants and animals are, because we can be spontaneous and creative.
We can, and do, seek mastery over our environment both behavioral and geographic. Unfortunately, once again the possibility exists for maladaptive behavior that arises under abnormal conditions such as an abusive home environment.Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, — The family soon moved to Ohio, eventually settling in Glenville, where Allport spent his school years. Wheeler Ed. Factor congruence as a criterion for determining the number of factors.
Allport viewed a trait as both a form of readiness and a determining tendency. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. An important aspect of rumors was those rumors designed to enhance prejudice and group antagonism. After describing the differences, Allport arrived at the following definition of a trait:.
Personality and motivation: Sources of inefficiency in cognitive performance.
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