happens next. Earl Babbie .. The Practice of Social Research was an immediate success. .. in pdf format to see the original pagination. The Practice of Social Research A Note from the AuthorWriting is my joy, sociology my passion. I delight in putti Author: Earl R. Babbie DOWNLOAD PDF. The Practice of Social Research. THOMSON • VVADSVVORTH Tile Practice of Social Researc/t, Eleventh Edition Earl Babbie AcquisiriollS Editor: Chris Ca.
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Earl Babbie. Senior Publisher: 3 The Ethics and Politics of Social Research 64 W O. P A R T T W O The .. eral methods book, and The Practice of Social Re-. raudone.info The Practice of Social Research, Thirteenth Edition Earl Babbie our broader discussion of social. (sometimes called sociological practice) and also • I've added a section at the Earl Babbie 2 Paradigms, Theory, and Research What You'll Learn in This.
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Characteristics of Quantitative Research
Why download extra books when you can get all the homework help you need in one place? Describes the theoretical framework -- provide an outline of the theory or hypothesis underpinning your study. If necessary, define unfamiliar or complex terms, concepts, or ideas and provide the appropriate background information to place the research problem in proper context [e. Methodology The methods section of a quantitative study should describe how each objective of your study will be achieved.
Be sure to provide enough detail to enable the reader can make an informed assessment of the methods being used to obtain results associated with the research problem. The methods section should be presented in the past tense. Study population and sampling -- where did the data come from; how robust is it; note where gaps exist or what was excluded. Note the procedures used for their selection; Data collection — describe the tools and methods used to collect information and identify the variables being measured; describe the methods used to obtain the data; and, note if the data was pre-existing [i.
If you gathered it yourself, describe what type of instrument you used and why. Note that no data set is perfect--describe any limitations in methods of gathering data. Data analysis -- describe the procedures for processing and analyzing the data. If appropriate, describe the specific instruments of analysis used to study each research objective, including mathematical techniques and the type of computer software used to manipulate the data.
Results The finding of your study should be written objectively and in a succinct and precise format. In quantitative studies, it is common to use graphs, tables, charts, and other non-textual elements to help the reader understand the data. Make sure that non-textual elements do not stand in isolation from the text but are being used to supplement the overall description of the results and to help clarify key points being made. Further information about how to effectively present data using charts and graphs can be found here.
Statistical analysis -- how did you analyze the data? What were the key findings from the data? The findings should be present in a logical, sequential order.
Describe but do not interpret these trends or negative results; save that for the discussion section. The results should be presented in the past tense.
Discussion Discussions should be analytic, logical, and comprehensive. The discussion should meld together your findings in relation to those identified in the literature review, and placed within the context of the theoretical framework underpinning the study.
The discussion should be presented in the present tense. Interpretation of results -- reiterate the research problem being investigated and compare and contrast the findings with the research questions underlying the study. Did they affirm predicted outcomes or did the data refute it? Description of trends, comparison of groups, or relationships among variables -- describe any trends that emerged from your analysis and explain all unanticipated and statistical insignificant findings.
Discussion of implications — what is the meaning of your results? Highlight key findings based on the overall results and note findings that you believe are important.
How have the results helped fill gaps in understanding the research problem? Limitations -- describe any limitations or unavoidable bias in your study and, if necessary, note why these limitations did not inhibit effective interpretation of the results.
Conclusion End your study by to summarizing the topic and provide a final comment and assessment of the study.
Why do we need social science to discover the reality of social life? Ordinary Human Inquiry Practically all people, and many other animals as well, exhibit a desire to predict their future circumstances. Humans seem predisposed to undertake this task by using causal and probabilistic reasoning. First, we generally recognize that future circumstances are somehow caused or conditioned by present ones. We learn that getting an education will affect how much money we earn later in life Looking for Reality and that swimming beyond the reef may bring an unhappy encounter with a shark.
Sharks, on the other hand—whether or not they reason the matter through—may learn that hanging around the reef often brings a happy encounter with unhappy swimmers. Second, we also learn that such patterns of cause and effect are probabilistic. That is, the effects occur more often when the causes occur than when the causes are absent—but not always. Thus, students learn that studying hard produces good grades in most instances, but not every time.
We recognize the danger of swimming beyond the reef, without believing that every such swim will be fatal. It sharpens the skills we already have by making us more conscious, rigorous, and explicit in our inquiries.
In looking at ordinary human inquiry, we need to distinguish between prediction and understanding. Often, we can make predictions without understanding—perhaps you can predict rain when your trick knee aches. A racetrack buff who discovers that the third-ranked horse in the third race of the day always seems to win will probably keep betting without knowing, or caring, why it works out that way.
Whatever the primitive drives or instincts that motivate human beings and other animals, satisfying these drives depends heavily on the ability to predict future circumstances. For people, however, the attempt to predict is often placed in a context of knowledge and understanding.
If you can understand why things are related to each other, why certain regular patterns occur, you can predict better than if you simply observe and remember those patterns. To see how, consider two important sources of our secondhand knowledge—tradition and authority.
We may learn from others that planting corn in the spring will garner the greatest assistance from the gods, that eating too much candy will decay our teeth, that the circumference of a circle is approximately twenty-two sevenths of its diameter, or that masturbation will blind us.
By accepting what everybody knows, we avoid the overwhelming task of starting from scratch in our search for regularities and understanding. Knowledge is cumulative, and an inherited body of information and understanding is the jumping-off point for the development of more knowledge. At the same time, tradition may hinder human inquiry. If we seek a fresh understanding of something everybody already understands and has always understood, we may be marked as fools for our efforts. Often, acceptance of these new acquisitions depends on the status of the discoverer.
Like tradition, authority can both assist and hinder human inquiry. We do well to trust the judgment of the person who has special training, expertise, and credentials in a given matter, especially in the face of controversy.
At the same time, inquiry can be greatly hindered by the legitimate authorities who err within their own province. Moreover, biological knowledge changes over time.
Inquiry is also hindered when we depend on the authority of experts speaking outside their realm of expertise. For example, consider the political or religious leader with no medical or biochemical expertise who declares that marijuana can fry your brain. The advertising industry plays heavily on this misuse of authority by, for example, having popular athletes discuss the nutritional value of breakfast cereals or having movie actors evaluate the performance of automobiles. Both tradition and authority, then, act as double-edged swords in the search for knowledge about the world.
Simply put, they provide us with a starting point for our own inquiry, but they can lead us to start at the wrong point and push us off in the wrong direction. Errors in Inquiry, and Some Solutions Besides the potential dangers of tradition and authority, other pitfalls often cause us to stumble and fall when we set out to learn for ourselves.
The Practice of Social Research 14th Edition (eBook PDF)
Inaccurate Observations Quite frequently, we make mistakes in our observations. Just making observation more deliberate helps reduce error. You might also need a hobby. In many cases, both simple and complex measurement devices help guard against inaccurate observations. Moreover, they add a degree of precision well beyond the capacity of the unassisted human senses.
See earlier comment about needing a hobby. That is, we overgeneralize on the basis of limited observations.
Think back to our now-broke racetrack buff. Probably the tendency to overgeneralize peaks when the pressure to arrive at a general understanding is high. Yet it also occurs without such pressure. Whenever overgeneralization does occur, it can misdirect or impede inquiry.
Imagine you are a reporter covering an animalrights demonstration. You have orders to turn in your story in just two hours, and you need to know why people are demonstrating. Rushing to the scene, you start interviewing them, asking for their reasons. Unfortunately, when your story appears, your editor gets scores of letters from protesters who were there for an entirely different reason.Concluding that one youth became delinquent largely because of a lack of positive adult role models draws attention to the part that role models play in keeping most youths on the straight and narrow.
There are no laws in social science that parallel the laws in natural science. Science is, of course, none of these things per se. Just post a question you need help with, and one of our experts will provide a custom solution. You might be sent to live in a hospital with other people who question things like that.