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Prieto-Pablos says Herbert achieves a new typology with Paul's superpowers, differentiating the heroes of Dune from earlier heroes such as Superman , van Vogt 's Gilbert Gosseyn and Henry Kuttner 's telepaths. Unlike previous superheroes who acquire their powers suddenly and accidentally, Paul's are the result of "painful and slow personal progress. As in an Escher lithograph, I involved myself with recurrent themes that turn into paradox. The central paradox concerns the human vision of time.
[PDF] The Dune Encyclopedia: The Complete, Authorized Guide and Companion to Frank Herbert s
What about Paul's gift of prescience-the Presbyterian fixation? For the Delphic Oracle to perform, it must tangle itself in a web of predestination. Yet predestination negates surprises and, in fact, sets up a mathematically enclosed universe whose limits are always inconsistent, always encountering the unprovable. It's like a koan, a Zen mind breaker. It's like the Cretan Epimenides saying, "All Cretans are liars. Clarke has described it as "unique" and claimed "I know nothing comparable to it except Lord of the Rings.
Heinlein described Dune as "Powerful, convincing, and most ingenious. An astonishing science fiction phenomenon. It breathes, it speaks, and Herbert has smelt it in his nostrils". He found that the novel, however, "turns flat and tails off at the end.
Budrys faulted in particular Herbert's decision to kill Paul's infant son offstage, with no apparent emotional impact, saying "you cannot be so busy saving a world that you cannot hear an infant shriek".
Hladik wrote that the story "crafts a universe where lesser novels promulgate excuses for sequels. All its rich elements are in balance and plausible—not the patchwork confederacy of made-up languages, contrived customs, and meaningless histories that are the hallmark of so many other, lesser novels. Up to this point, Chilton had been publishing only automobile repair manuals. Jacobs optioned the rights to film Dune. As Jacobs was busy with other projects, such as the sequel to Planet of the Apes , Dune was delayed for another year.
Jacobs' first choice for director was David Lean , but he turned down the offer. Charles Jarrott was also considered to direct. Work was also under way on a script while the hunt for a director continued. Initially, the first treatment had been handled by Robert Greenhut , the producer who had lobbied Jacobs to make the movie in the first place, but subsequently Rospo Pallenberg was approached to write the script, with shooting scheduled to begin in However, Jacobs died in It was at first proposed to score the film with original music by Karlheinz Stockhausen , Henry Cow , and Magma ; later on, the soundtrack was to be provided by Pink Floyd.
Jodorowsky's son Brontis was to play Paul Atreides. Jodorowsky took creative liberties with the source material, but Herbert said that he and Jodorowsky had an amicable relationship. Jodorowsky said in that he found the Dune story mythical and had intended to recreate it rather than adapt the novel; though he had an "enthusiastic admiration" for Herbert, Jodorowsky said he had done everything possible to distance the author and his input from the project.
O'Bannon entered a psychiatric hospital after the production failed, and worked on 13 scripts; the last of which became Alien. In Dino De Laurentiis acquired the rights from Gibon's consortium. De Laurentiis commissioned Herbert to write a new screenplay in ; the script Herbert turned in was pages long, the equivalent of nearly three hours of screen time.
Giger retained from the Jodorowsky production. Scott intended to split the book into two movies. He worked on three drafts of the script, using The Battle of Algiers as a point of reference, before moving on to direct another science fiction film, Blade Runner As he recalls, the pre-production process was slow, and finishing the project would have been even more time-intensive: But after seven months I dropped out of Dune, by then Rudy Wurlitzer had come up with a first-draft script which I felt was a decent distillation of Frank Herbert's.
But I also realised Dune was going to take a lot more work—at least two and a half years' worth.
And I didn't have the heart to attack that because my older brother Frank unexpectedly died of cancer while I was prepping the De Laurentiis picture. Frankly, that freaked me out.
So I went to Dino and told him the Dune script was his. Sammon film by David Lynch[ edit ] Main article: Dune film In , the nine-year film rights were set to expire. De Laurentiis re-negotiated the rights from the author, adding to them the rights to the Dune sequels written and unwritten. Around that time Lynch received several other directing offers, including Return of the Jedi. He agreed to direct Dune and write the screenplay even though he had not read the book, known the story, or even been interested in science fiction.
The team yielded two drafts of the script before it split over creative differences. Lynch would subsequently work on five more drafts.
This first film of Dune, directed by Lynch, was released in , nearly 20 years after the book's publication. Though Herbert said the book's depth and symbolism seemed to intimidate many filmmakers, he was pleased with the film, saying that "They've got it.
It begins as Dune does.
They [the Guild]mighthave taken Arrakiswhen they realized the error of specializingon the melange awareness-spectrum narcoticfor theirnavigators Instead,theyexistedmoment to moment,hopingthe seas in whichtheyswammightproducea new hostwhen the old one died.
The Guildnavigators,giftedwithlimitedprescience,hadmade the fatal decision:they'dchosen alwaysthe clear, safe coursethat leads ever downwardinto stagnation. Paul, however,does not use a differentawareness-spectrum narcotic the Waterof Lifebeinga more potentformof the ecologicallysimilarmelange , nor does his presciencedifferin essence from that of the Guildnavigators althoughPaul sees more clearly,due to his mentaltraining,his Bene Ges- seritpast,and the potencyof the Water ,so thatthe Vitalitystruggleproves once againto be one of degree.
Paul does not escapefromthe systemwhen he becomesthe Prophet,but insteadadjustshis homeostasisand that of his affectedradiusby a significantnumberof vitalityandriskfactors. Herbertmaintainslaw in the faufreluchesby unitingit with economics,politics,and society:on Arrakisthe law is religion.
Herbert's molding of religious history facilitates the evolution of both the ecological theme and the theme of the dangers of a superhero, as well as providing an elaborate backdrop for many of the lesser sub-plots.
The major reason for Arrakis' suitability as a receptacle for Herbert's collection of religious traditions is that he makes the planet into a living embodiment of the conception of a total amalgamation between law and religion. Compare: Rom.
For thereis no authorityexceptfromGod, and those that existhavebeen instituted by God. Qur-5n,20 S. The Search for Humanness. The final historicaleffect of the Butlerian Jihad is the search for humanness. It has been said that "the Butlerian Jihad was the birth agony of a new science of the subjective" O'Reilly This new science explores the development of human physiological and psycho- logical potential as opposed to the largely forbidden artificial minds and thinkingmachines.
It developsprimarilyas three mentalschools:the Guild mathematicsand navigation ,the mentats computationand analysis ,and the Bene Gesserit politics and genetics. Since the mentats and the Guild are inherently parasitic service institutions, it is the Bene Gesserit who deserve our intention, inasmuch as it is they who attempt to shatter the limits of the question "What is it to be human?
The sisterhood's plan is to lift Homo sapiens from animal awareness to people, to humans, and then to trained humans and perhaps beyond. All this is aimed at producinga humangom jabbar, the KwisatzHaderach. The Bene Gesserit's purpose is explicit:"we It is also faulty. As Paul remarks: You [Bene Gesserit]saw part of what the race needs,but how poorlyyou saw it.
You thinkto controlhumanbreedingand intermixa select few accordingto your masterplan! How little you understand In the course of the Vitalitystruggle,Arrakisis the gom jabbarof the Fremen;any Fremen, consequently,is by definitionhuman. The MissionariaProtectiva'sideal of humannesscombineswiththe existingFremenhyper-sensibilities aboutsur- vivalto raise the Fremento a new level of humanness.
The searchfor humannessand the B. It is Bene GesserittrainingwhichenablesJessicato find and hold a niche for herself and Paul with the Fremen. Even so, Paul realizesthat his mother has been the ever-presentBene Gesserit hand guidinghim towardsthe unwantedjihad:"Mymotheris my enemy.
She does not knowit, but she is. She is bringingthe jihad. She bore me; she trained me.
Frank Herbert - Dune
Jessica herself finally understandsthat she has been playinga partin a too-longhistoricalsearch for humanness: I suddenlysee how I've usedyou [Paul]and twistedyou andmanipulated you to set you on a courseof my choosing. Prescienceis used by Herbertto charthistoricallythe developmentof Paul Muad'Dib,markingthe progressof activehistorybe- yond the effects of the ButlerianJihad.
As Paul'slevel of awarenessrises, the magnitudeof his understandingof historicalcause and effect corre- spondinglyexpands;as the futureKwisatzHaderachhe will be able to see that more and more people travelthe golden road from animalsto fully awarehumans,therebyincreasingthe collectiveunderstanding of humanity's place in an organicuniverse.
The course of Paul's journey into hyperawarenessis delineated by Herbertthrougha recurringcycle of consciousnessjumps. Paul'sfirstsuch jump,whichoccurredbefore the actionof Dune begins,was to his abilityto knowwhichof his dreamsare in fact truth.
Rememberthat Paul,because of his genetics and training,is already an unwittingmentat-plusat the novel's opening. The third series is initiatedduringthe wait in the desert for DuncanIdaho and was promptedby his continualproximityto the ubiqui- tous spice.
This is Paul's first wakingdream,where he sees not just computes futurepossibilities.
Jᴀᴄᴜʀᴜᴛᴜ - Tʜᴇ Cᴀsᴛ Oᴜᴛ
While this soon slips from him, he nonethelessfalls back to a new level beyondevenmentat-plusandnowcanoccasionallyexperienceflashesof true prescience. In the Cave of the Ridges, Paul experiencesanother leap, this time initiatedby his eatingof the spice-ladenFremenfood. The penultimateawarenessjump occursduringJessica'sReverendMother initiationwhere Paul receivesa more completeknowledgeof those historicalforces: On one side he could see the Imperium, They lay massed like a thunderheadon the horizon,held backby no more thanthe Fremenand their Muad'Dib,the sleepinggiant Fremenpoised for theirwild crusadeacrossthe universe.
Now well be- yondsimplementatcomputationand vision,possessinga multitudeof past lives, and able to use higher-ordermathematicsand dimensionsto predict the future more accuratelythan the Guild Navigators,Paul Muad'Dibis history. He has lived, is living, and will live billions of lives, and thus representsan actuallivingprojectionof historyin the universeitself.
Herbertleaves the exact natureof Paul'sprecognitiveabilitiesunclear. Moreover,there seems to be a touch of the CopenhagenInterpretationpresent: Prophecyand prescience-how can they be put to the test in the face of unan- sweredquestions?
Consider:How much is the actualpredictionof the "wave form" as Muad'Dibreferredto his vision-image and how muchis the prophet shapingthe futureto fit the prophecy? Paramountamong these criticaljuncturesis the seismicmovementthroughoutthe book to the comingjihad,whichcertainly ties in with the much-discussedVitalitystruggle. Indeed, throughoutthe centralpart of Dune, Paul almostbends over backwardtryingto avoidthe comingholy war. In an effort to circumventboth he puts the plan to Liet-Kynesto enlist Fremenhelp to prove to the LandsraadCouncilthat the Emperor's Sardaukarwere involvedin the Harkonnenattack.
Ultimately,this alliance betweenKynesand Paul leads to the planetologist'sdeathand thus opens the doorfor Paulto attainand eventuallysurpassKynes'spiritualleadership of the IchwanBedwine.
In addition,as Paul and the story move simulta- neouslytowardthe final nexus, the duel with Feyd, the historicalprocess closes aroundthem both, fulfillingthe ideas of the Vitalitystruggleand all the other themes: Eventhe faintgapswere closednow.
Herewasthe unbornjihad,he [Paul]knew. Here was the race consciousnessthat he had knownonce as his own terrible purpose. The race of humanshad felt its own dormancy,sensed itself growstale and knewnow only the need to experi- ence turmoilin which the genes would mingle and the strong new mixtures survive. Conclusion:Paul as Part of the HistoricalSystem. Severalscholarsfavorthe former theoryand prefer either to contrast an idealistic Paul with a decadent Imperium23 or to perceivehim as the main drivingforce of the comingjihad O'Reilly?
Thatneitherthesisis correcthas alreadybeen partiallydemonstrat- ed. Clearly,Paulis a historicallyspawnedand highlyinfluentialcatalystwho sparksthe awesome inertialforces of historyinto motion and as such is completelyintertwinedwith the already-presentinstitutionsand structures he will use in his rise to godhood. Mark Siegal attempts to distinguishbetween an exploitative,non- ecologicalImperiumand an equilibriousDuke Leto who also happensto be an expertin controllingresourceuse He posits that all empireshave many similar characteristics:they have a large, expanding,and weakly controlledpopulationwhichhas minimalcontactwiththe environment; they use complextechnologiesand utilize resourcesfrom externalsources;and they have great sustenanceneeds whichare largelydeterminedby cultural wants,whichin turnlead to highexpectationsof gratificationand continued expansion.
This is poor histoe94 and a misunderstanding of the degree of similaritybetween the ways in whichLeto later, Paul and the Imperium operate. Leto, Paul,Shaddam,andeventhe BaronHarkonnenuse the same method to gain and wield power: crack troops. The Emperor has his Sardaukar,Leto and Paul wish to use the Fremen, and ultimatelyHawat convincesthe Baronthat he too shouldplaythe game. The tenets of the twin pillarsof inequalityand feudalhierarchismare driveninto everyone of the membersof the nobility or other power groups,not exceptingDuke Leto and Paul.
Clearlyfather and son are in command,for, like the Emperorand any leaderof a Great House, they use their resources,humanor otherwise. That is a questionwhose answermust alwaysbe completelysubjective. Touponcetells us of an originalversionof Dune featuringPardotKynes,whichwas scrappedbecauseHerbertdid not wishto provideanyfinalanswers I believethatthis is muchthe case here in that Herbert is never the absolute arbiter of such universalsas "failure.
Dune is a book of a thousandsubtle shifts of perspective,acting upon and reinforcingeach other in a holistic whole. Thus, Muad'Dib operates on the edge of the historicaldeluge, changingcertainthings by degreesin orderto channelthe floodsto his benefit.
WhileMuad'Dib is, in some respects,beyondthe Imperium,as in being the uniqueKwisatz Haderach,he is essentiallybound to the stricturesof the Imperiumin thought and deed by the effects of the ButlerianJihad on history.
NOTES 1. The chapters in Dune are not numbered. See O'Reilly?
It is my thesis, however, that these themes emerge from the detailed and "accurate"setting of the story in the history of the Imperium. Miller identifies two motifs ubiquitous in Herbert's works: "If man does not achieve a balance within himself and with his environment, existence is merely a version of chaos" the ecological theme and "If man freezes an achieved balance, decadence sets in and life yields to entropy" 9.
The latter is part of the grounding of the third major theme of the novel, the Vitality struggle. Dune is the quintessential "onion skin" book; as Aldiss notes, it is a "dense and complex" book "which [will] repay careful attention and impress even on a fourth or fifth reading" This essay is concerned only with Dune.
It ignores the other five novels of the series, for the bulk of "history"is in Dune alone, and it seems to me, contrary to the design of the original novel, the five novels that follow become increasingly close- ended, introspective, and preachy. This is not to say that they are worthless; on the contrary, all five especially Hereticsof Dune are powerful and intelligent SF novels.
But it is Dune, with a multi-facetedness that is lost in the sequels, that sets the historical stage for all six novels. I have thus resisted the temptation to study the sequels, and, at the risk of losing such valuable material as the Bene Tleilax, the ghola Idahos, the Bashar Miles Teg, and the God Emperor himself, I have not in this essay drawn any conclusions beyond those which can be supported by Dune alone.
I have ignored also the highly entertaining Dune Encyclopedia, as it is more a fan's guide to the series than an effective research tool. Ower Siegal notes that Herbert's vision is balanced between deter- ministic history and the free will of individuals This reference is to the term "Richese" in the alphabetical "Terminology of the Imperium," which appears at the beginning of the hardback editions and at the end of the paperbacks.
O'Reilly: "Feudalism is a natural condition into which men fall [Herbert] contends, a situation in which some men lead and others, surrendering the respon- sibility to make their own decisions, follow orders.
There is, however, good reason to believe that some of these institutions predate the Great Revolt. While the Guild was a child of the Jihad, the Landsraad was certainly not: during the C. A stickier problem is the date of origin of the Sardaukar and of the formation of the Imperial structure as a helpful guide, see Figure 2.
Inasmuchas Imperialforcesestab- lishedthe firsthumancolonyon SalusaSecundus the home of the Sardaukar , this statementimpliesthat the Imperiumpredatesthe ascendancyof the House Corrino 88 B. This is why the Emperorwas so afraidof Duke Leto'sandlaterBaronHarkonnen'splan to use the Fremen,for theywouldbe usingthe samemethodthat House Corrinohad used to gain the throne;i.
The decline of the Sardaukarforeshadowsthe future emasculationof the victoriousbut stagnating Fremenin the laterbooks of the series. Siegal:"Allsystemswithinthe novelthatcombineto createhumanhistoryare seen to be interrelated,presumablyin a complexway" The "opponentsof Paul and the Fremenare essentiallystagnant Paulrepresentsa new idea Cf Herbert,"Sparks", llOnl. This is certainlytrue for the women of the Imperiumwho, despite Bene Gesseritstatus,find themselvesin a "male-dominated societywhereeven the most ambitiousfemales'responsesare traditionalin meansand in effect" Hand Of course,female traditionalismin a feudal societyis not an altogetherunexpected conclusion.
Yet the question does not end there, since the relationshipof the traditionalism of Dune'swomento its myriadthemesandplots is by no meansfully exploredby Hand. It is a topicworthfurtherexploration. Not onlyis the greetingindicativeof the faufreluches,but the reciprocalunderstand- ing of the bow "the nuancesof Paul'sgreetingwere not lost on the Reverend Mother" can only mean that they are using a form of language.According to Meyers, McNelly mentioned a particular aspect of this paradox involving lifespans of the Emperors to Herbert, who replied that the contradictions simply had not occurred to him.
Indeed, throughoutthe centralpart of Dune, Paul almostbends over backwardtryingto avoidthe comingholy war. A stickier problem is the date of origin of the Sardaukar and of the formation of the Imperial structure as a helpful guide, see Figure 2. Herbert: "The high value of the geriatric spice rests in its life extension for its users" "Sandworms" Your name.
Much better [to] rely on your own judgment, and your own mistakes.
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