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Return to Book Page. Preview — Manufacturing Automation by Yusuf Altintas. Manufacturing Automation: Metal cutting is one of the most widely used methods of producing the final shape of manufactured products.
This text treats the scientific principles of metal cutting and their practical application to manufacturing problems. The author uses mathematics, physics, computers, software, and instrumentation as integration tools in analyzing machine implements and manufacturin Metal cutting is one of the most widely used methods of producing the final shape of manufactured products.
The author uses mathematics, physics, computers, software, and instrumentation as integration tools in analyzing machine implements and manufacturing processes.
A special feature is the in-depth coverage of chatter vibrations, a problem experienced daily by practicing manufacturing engineers. Each chapter includes industrial examples, design projects, and homework problems. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages.
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More filters. Sort order. Dec 03, Darcy rated it it was amazing Shelves: Altintas was a professor of mine at UBC. I took a course in electromechanical engineering that used a draft of this book and loved it.
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After graduating I then downloadd the book. This book is unique in it's coverage of the mechanics of metal cutting, modeling static and dynamic deformations in machining, and design of CNC controls.
However this is not the focus Altintas was a professor of mine at UBC. However this is not the focus of the book. Ramiro rated it it was ok Dec 07, Anh Son rated it it was amazing Jul 20, Hadi added it Jul 04, Ali rated it it was amazing Oct 10, Boris rated it liked it Jan 23, Gorkem rated it liked it Feb 10, It worked automatically, though, and produced pieces with the high degree of accuracy required by the aircraft industry.
By the s, the price and complexity of automated machines had been reduced to the point where they found applications in other industries. These machines used direct current electric drive motors to manipulate the handwheels and operate the tools.
The motors took electrical instructions from a tape reader, which read a paper tape approximately 1 in 2. The position and sequence of the holes allowed the reader to produce the necessary electrical impulses to turn the motors at just the precise time and rate, which in effect operated the machine just like the human operator.
The impulses were managed by a simple computer that had no "memory" capability at the time. These were often called "NC," or Numerical Controlled machines. A programmer produced the tape on a typewriter-like machine, much like the old "punch cards" used in early computers, which served as the "program.
The story of how computers were first linked to production machinery is full of intrigue and controversy. It illuminates how intertwined industry, universities, and the military have been in the 20th century. The story also exemplifies how difficult it is to attribute many innovations to a single individual or institution. Sorting out who did what when and with what impact is a complex enterprise.
Faced with the increasing complexity of parts' shapes and the mathematical and engineering problems they entailed, Parsons searched for ways to reduce his firm's engineering costs. He asked the International Business Machine Corp. Eventually, Parsons made an arrangement with Thomas J. Soon Parsons also had a contract with the Air Force to produce a machine controlled by cards or tape like a player piano that would cut contour shapes like those in propellers and wings. Parsons then went to engineers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Servomechanism Laboratory for help with the project.
In turn, the MIT laboratory saw this as an opportunity to expand their own research into control and feedback mechanisms. The successful development of computer-numerical-control machine tools was then undertaken by university researchers seeking to meet the demands of military sponsors.
William S. Pretzer With advances in integrated electronics, the tape was eliminated, or used only to load the program into magnetic memory. In fact, the capacity of the memory of modern CNC machines is still sometimes referred to as "feet of memory. To place this information in the memory, the programmer creates a series of instructions that the machine can understand.
The program may consist of "code" commands, such as "M03" which instructs the controller to move the spindle to a new position, or "G99," which instructs the controller to read an auxiliary input from some process inside the machine. Code commands are the most common way to program a CNC machine tool.
However, the advancement in computers has allowed the machine tool manufacturer to offer "conversational programming," where the instructions are more like plain words. It is important to note, however, that most conversational machines still read code programs, since the industry relies on that form of programming quite heavily. The controller also offers help to the programmer to speed up the machine use. In some machines, for example, the programmer can simply type in the location, diameter, and depth of a feature and the computer will select the best machining method for producing the feature in the workpiece.
The latest equipment can take a computer-generated engineering model; calculate the correct tool speeds, feeds, and paths; and produce the part without a drawing or program ever being created. Modern Design and Raw Materials The mechanical components of the machine must be rigid and strong to support the quickly moving parts.
The spindle is usually the strongest part and is supported by large bearings. Whether the spindle holds the work or the tool, an automatic clamping feature allows the spindle to rapidly clamp and unclamp during the program run. Attached to the side of the machine is a magazine of different tools. A transfer arm, sometimes called the tool bar, removes a tool from the machine, places it into the magazine, selects a different tool from the magazine, and returns it to the machine through instructions in the program.
Typical cycle time required for this procedure is two to eight seconds. Some machines may contain up to tools in large "hives," each automatically loaded in sequence as the program runs. The bed or worktable of the machine is supported on hardened steel "ways" which are usually protected by flexible guards.
Cast iron or Meehanite used to be the material of choice for metal working machines. Today, most machines make liberal use of weldments of hot-rolled steel and wrought products such as stainless steel to reduce cost and allow fabrication of more intricate frame designs. Some machines are designed as cells, which means they have a specific group of parts they are designed to manufacture. Cell machines have large tool magazines to carry enough tools to do all of the various operations on each of the different parts, large worktables or the ability to change worktables, and special provisions in the controller for data inputs from other CNC machines.
This allows the CNC machine to be assembled with other similarly equipped machines into a Flexible Machining Cell, which can produce more than one part simultaneously. A group of cells, some containing 20 or 30 machines, is called a Flexible Machining System.
These systems can produce literally hundreds of different parts at the same time with little human intervention. Some are designed to run day and night without supervision in what is referred to as "lights out" manufacturing. The Manufacturing Process Until recently, most machining centers were built to customer specifications by the machine tool builder.
Now, standardized tooling design has allowed machines to be built for stock or later sale, since the new designs can perform all the needed operations of most users.
CNC Machine Tool
The actual manufacturing process proceeds as follows. Welding the base 1 The base of the machine is either cast or welded together. It is then heat treated to remove casting or welding stresses and to "normalize" the metal for machining. The base is fixtured into a large machining center, and the mounting areas for the ways are machined to specification.
Bolting the bollscrews 3 The mechanisms that move the bed or spindle are called ballscrews. These change rotary motion of the drive motors into linear motion and consist of a screw shaft and support bearings. As the shaft turns, a bearing mount follows the spiral grooves in the shaft and produces a very accurate linear movement that moves either the worktable under the spindle, or the spindle carrier itself.
These ballscrews are bolted to the base with the bearing mount bolted to the worktable or spindle carrier. Mounting the spindle 4 The spindle is machined and ground, mounted to its drive motor, and then bolted to the movable spindle carrier.
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Each axis of motion has a separate ballscrew and set of ways in most machining centers. The controller 5 The computer, or controller, is an electronic assembly separate from the rest of the machine.
It has a climate-controlled enclosure mounted on the side of the frame or in an operator's console. It contains all of the operating memory, computer boards, power supplies, and other electronic circuitry to operate the machine. Assorted wiring connects the controller to the machine motors and positional slides.
The slides continuously send the axis location information to the controller, so the exact position of the worktable in relationship to the spindle is always known.MIT's machine[ edit ] MIT fitted gears to the various handwheel inputs and drove them with roller chains connected to motors, one for each of the machine's three axes X, Y, and Z.
Often referred to as "The Flower of Industrial Technology", the development of CNC technology depends upon the integration of technologies from computer, hardware, machining, and other industries, and requires strategic long-term support, mostly on a governmental level.
Rakesh Rathod marked it as to-read Apr 26, This allows the CNC machine to be assembled with other similarly equipped machines into a Flexible Machining Cell, which can produce more than one part simultaneously. As Parsons later noted: The NC concept was so strange to manufacturers, and so slow to catch on, that the US Army itself finally had to build NC machines and lease them to various manufacturers to begin popularizing its use.
These would not only be much stronger, but far easier to make as well, as they would eliminate the complex layup and glue and screw fastening on the wood. Today, most machines make liberal use of weldments of hot-rolled steel and wrought products such as stainless steel to reduce cost and allow fabrication of more intricate frame designs. Original Title.
Here, one operator read the numbers off the charts to two other operators, one on each of the X- and Y- axes.
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