[PDF] [EPUB] Chemistry 11th Edition Raymond Chang raudone.info - Free download Ebook,. Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on the. Back Forward Main Menu TOC Study Guide TOC Textbook Website MHHE Website 1 C H A P T E R. Chemistry: The Study of Change I N T R O D U C T I O N. Download Pdf, Free Pdf General Chemistry Raymond Chang 11th Edition Download. Fundamentals Of Chemistry - raudone.info raymond chang: general.
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Looking at the formula for spontaneous change one can easily come to the same conclusion, for there is no possible way for the free energy change to be positive. Hence, the reaction is spontaneous at all temperatures. Application of the Second Law The second law occurs all around us all of the time, existing as the biggest, most powerful, general idea in all of science. Explanation of Earth's Age When scientists were trying to determine the age of the Earth during s they failed to even come close to the value accepted today.
They also were incapable of understanding how the earth transformed.
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Lord Kelvin, who was mentioned earlier, first hypothesized that the earth's surface was extremely hot, similar to the surface of the sun. He believed that the earth was cooling at a slow pace. Using this information, Kelvin used thermodynamics to come to the conclusion that the earth was at least twenty million years, for it would take about that long for the earth to cool to its current state.
Twenty million years was not even close to the actual age of the Earth, but this is because scientists during Kelvin's time were not aware of radioactivity. Even though Kelvin was incorrect about the age of the planet, his use of the second law allowed him to predict a more accurate value than the other scientists at the time. Less familiar phases include plasmas , Bose—Einstein condensates and fermionic condensates and the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases of magnetic materials.
Chemistry by Raymond Chang
While most familiar phases deal with three-dimensional systems, it is also possible to define analogs in two-dimensional systems, which has received attention for its relevance to systems in biology. Atoms sticking together in molecules or crystals are said to be bonded with one another. A chemical bond may be visualized as the multipole balance between the positive charges in the nuclei and the negative charges oscillating about them.
A chemical bond can be a covalent bond , an ionic bond , a hydrogen bond or just because of Van der Waals force. Each of these kinds of bonds is ascribed to some potential. These potentials create the interactions which hold atoms together in molecules or crystals. In many simple compounds, valence bond theory , the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion model VSEPR , and the concept of oxidation number can be used to explain molecular structure and composition.
An ionic bond is formed when a metal loses one or more of its electrons, becoming a positively charged cation, and the electrons are then gained by the non-metal atom, becoming a negatively charged anion. The two oppositely charged ions attract one another, and the ionic bond is the electrostatic force of attraction between them.
The ions are held together due to electrostatic attraction, and that compound sodium chloride NaCl , or common table salt, is formed. In a covalent bond, one or more pairs of valence electrons are shared by two atoms: Atoms will share valence electrons in such a way as to create a noble gas electron configuration eight electrons in their outermost shell for each atom.
Atoms that tend to combine in such a way that they each have eight electrons in their valence shell are said to follow the octet rule. However, some elements like hydrogen and lithium need only two electrons in their outermost shell to attain this stable configuration; these atoms are said to follow the duet rule , and in this way they are reaching the electron configuration of the noble gas helium , which has two electrons in its outer shell.
Similarly, theories from classical physics can be used to predict many ionic structures. With more complicated compounds, such as metal complexes , valence bond theory is less applicable and alternative approaches, such as the molecular orbital theory, are generally used. See diagram on electronic orbitals.
In the context of chemistry, energy is an attribute of a substance as a consequence of its atomic , molecular or aggregate structure. Since a chemical transformation is accompanied by a change in one or more of these kinds of structures, it is invariably accompanied by an increase or decrease of energy of the substances involved.
Some energy is transferred between the surroundings and the reactants of the reaction in the form of heat or light ; thus the products of a reaction may have more or less energy than the reactants. A reaction is said to be exergonic if the final state is lower on the energy scale than the initial state; in the case of endergonic reactions the situation is the reverse.
A reaction is said to be exothermic if the reaction releases heat to the surroundings; in the case of endothermic reactions , the reaction absorbs heat from the surroundings. Chemical reactions are invariably not possible unless the reactants surmount an energy barrier known as the activation energy.
This exponential dependence of a reaction rate on temperature is known as the Arrhenius equation. The activation energy necessary for a chemical reaction to occur can be in the form of heat, light, electricity or mechanical force in the form of ultrasound. A related concept free energy , which also incorporates entropy considerations, is a very useful means for predicting the feasibility of a reaction and determining the state of equilibrium of a chemical reaction, in chemical thermodynamics.
There exist only limited possible states of energy for electrons, atoms and molecules. These are determined by the rules of quantum mechanics , which require quantization of energy of a bound system. The phase of a substance is invariably determined by its energy and the energy of its surroundings. When the intermolecular forces of a substance are such that the energy of the surroundings is not sufficient to overcome them, it occurs in a more ordered phase like liquid or solid as is the case with water H 2 O ; a liquid at room temperature because its molecules are bound by hydrogen bonds.
The transfer of energy from one chemical substance to another depends on the size of energy quanta emitted from one substance. However, heat energy is often transferred more easily from almost any substance to another because the phonons responsible for vibrational and rotational energy levels in a substance have much less energy than photons invoked for the electronic energy transfer.
Thus, because vibrational and rotational energy levels are more closely spaced than electronic energy levels, heat is more easily transferred between substances relative to light or other forms of electronic energy. For example, ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation is not transferred with as much efficacy from one substance to another as thermal or electrical energy.
The existence of characteristic energy levels for different chemical substances is useful for their identification by the analysis of spectral lines.
Different kinds of spectra are often used in chemical spectroscopy , e. Spectroscopy is also used to identify the composition of remote objects — like stars and distant galaxies — by analyzing their radiation spectra. The term chemical energy is often used to indicate the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction or to transform other chemical substances. When a chemical substance is transformed as a result of its interaction with another substance or with energy, a chemical reaction is said to have occurred.
A chemical reaction is therefore a concept related to the "reaction" of a substance when it comes in close contact with another, whether as a mixture or a solution ; exposure to some form of energy, or both. It results in some energy exchange between the constituents of the reaction as well as with the system environment, which may be designed vessels—often laboratory glassware. Chemical reactions can result in the formation or dissociation of molecules, that is, molecules breaking apart to form two or more molecules or rearrangement of atoms within or across molecules.
Chemical reactions usually involve the making or breaking of chemical bonds. Oxidation, reduction , dissociation , acid-base neutralization and molecular rearrangement are some of the commonly used kinds of chemical reactions. A chemical reaction can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation.
While in a non-nuclear chemical reaction the number and kind of atoms on both sides of the equation are equal, for a nuclear reaction this holds true only for the nuclear particles viz. The sequence of steps in which the reorganization of chemical bonds may be taking place in the course of a chemical reaction is called its mechanism.
A chemical reaction can be envisioned to take place in a number of steps, each of which may have a different speed.
Many reaction intermediates with variable stability can thus be envisaged during the course of a reaction. Reaction mechanisms are proposed to explain the kinetics and the relative product mix of a reaction.
Many physical chemists specialize in exploring and proposing the mechanisms of various chemical reactions. Several empirical rules, like the Woodward—Hoffmann rules often come in handy while proposing a mechanism for a chemical reaction.
According to the IUPAC gold book, a chemical reaction is "a process that results in the interconversion of chemical species.
An additional caveat is made, in that this definition includes cases where the interconversion of conformers is experimentally observable. Such detectable chemical reactions normally involve sets of molecular entities as indicated by this definition, but it is often conceptually convenient to use the term also for changes involving single molecular entities i. An ion is a charged species, an atom or a molecule, that has lost or gained one or more electrons.
When an atom loses an electron and thus has more protons than electrons, the atom is a positively charged ion or cation. When an atom gains an electron and thus has more electrons than protons, the atom is a negatively charged ion or anion. Plasma is composed of gaseous matter that has been completely ionized, usually through high temperature. A substance can often be classified as an acid or a base. There are several different theories which explain acid-base behavior.
The simplest is Arrhenius theory , which states that acid is a substance that produces hydronium ions when it is dissolved in water, and a base is one that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. A third common theory is Lewis acid-base theory , which is based on the formation of new chemical bonds. Lewis theory explains that an acid is a substance which is capable of accepting a pair of electrons from another substance during the process of bond formation, while a base is a substance which can provide a pair of electrons to form a new bond.
According to this theory, the crucial things being exchanged are charges. Acid strength is commonly measured by two methods. One measurement, based on the Arrhenius definition of acidity, is pH , which is a measurement of the hydronium ion concentration in a solution, as expressed on a negative logarithmic scale. Thus, solutions that have a low pH have a high hydronium ion concentration and can be said to be more acidic.
That is, substances with a higher K a are more likely to donate hydrogen ions in chemical reactions than those with lower K a values. Redox red uction- ox idation reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed by either gaining electrons reduction or losing electrons oxidation. Substances that have the ability to oxidize other substances are said to be oxidative and are known as oxidizing agents , oxidants or oxidizers. An oxidant removes electrons from another substance.
Similarly, substances that have the ability to reduce other substances are said to be reductive and are known as reducing agents , reductants, or reducers.
A reductant transfers electrons to another substance and is thus oxidized itself. And because it "donates" electrons it is also called an electron donor.
Oxidation and reduction properly refer to a change in oxidation number—the actual transfer of electrons may never occur. Thus, oxidation is better defined as an increase in oxidation number , and reduction as a decrease in oxidation number. Although the concept of equilibrium is widely used across sciences, in the context of chemistry, it arises whenever a number of different states of the chemical composition are possible, as for example, in a mixture of several chemical compounds that can react with one another, or when a substance can be present in more than one kind of phase.
A system of chemical substances at equilibrium, even though having an unchanging composition, is most often not static ; molecules of the substances continue to react with one another thus giving rise to a dynamic equilibrium. Thus the concept describes the state in which the parameters such as chemical composition remain unchanged over time. Chemical reactions are governed by certain laws, which have become fundamental concepts in chemistry. Some of them are:.
The history of chemistry spans a period from very old times to the present. Since several millennia BC, civilizations were using technologies that would eventually form the basis of the various branches of chemistry.
Examples include extracting metals from ores , making pottery and glazes, fermenting beer and wine, extracting chemicals from plants for medicine and perfume, rendering fat into soap , making glass , and making alloys like bronze.
Chemistry was preceded by its protoscience, alchemy , which is an intuitive but non-scientific approach to understanding the constituents of matter and their interactions. It was unsuccessful in explaining the nature of matter and its transformations, but, by performing experiments and recording the results, alchemists set the stage for modern chemistry. Chemistry as a body of knowledge distinct from alchemy began to emerge when a clear differentiation was made between them by Robert Boyle in his work The Sceptical Chymist While both alchemy and chemistry are concerned with matter and its transformations, the crucial difference was given by the scientific method that chemists employed in their work.
Chemistry is considered to have become an established science with the work of Antoine Lavoisier , who developed a law of conservation of mass that demanded careful measurement and quantitative observations of chemical phenomena. The history of chemistry is intertwined with the history of thermodynamics , especially through the work of Willard Gibbs. The definition of chemistry has changed over time, as new discoveries and theories add to the functionality of the science.
The term "chymistry", in the view of noted scientist Robert Boyle in , meant the subject of the material principles of mixed bodies. The definition of the word "chemistry", as used by Georg Ernst Stahl , meant the art of resolving mixed, compound, or aggregate bodies into their principles; and of composing such bodies from those principles.
Early civilizations, such as the Egyptians  Babylonians , Indians  amassed practical knowledge concerning the arts of metallurgy, pottery and dyes, but didn't develop a systematic theory. A basic chemical hypothesis first emerged in Classical Greece with the theory of four elements as propounded definitively by Aristotle stating that fire , air , earth and water were the fundamental elements from which everything is formed as a combination.
Greek atomism dates back to BC, arising in works by philosophers such as Democritus and Epicurus. In the Hellenistic world the art of alchemy first proliferated, mingling magic and occultism into the study of natural substances with the ultimate goal of transmuting elements into gold and discovering the elixir of eternal life.
Under the influence of the new empirical methods propounded by Sir Francis Bacon and others, a group of chemists at Oxford , Robert Boyle , Robert Hooke and John Mayow began to reshape the old alchemical traditions into a scientific discipline. Boyle in particular is regarded as the founding father of chemistry due to his most important work, the classic chemistry text The Sceptical Chymist where the differentiation is made between the claims of alchemy and the empirical scientific discoveries of the new chemistry.
The theory of phlogiston a substance at the root of all combustion was propounded by the German Georg Ernst Stahl in the early 18th century and was only overturned by the end of the century by the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier , the chemical analogue of Newton in physics; who did more than any other to establish the new science on proper theoretical footing, by elucidating the principle of conservation of mass and developing a new system of chemical nomenclature used to this day.
Before his work, though, many important discoveries had been made, specifically relating to the nature of 'air' which was discovered to be composed of many different gases. English scientist John Dalton proposed the modern theory of atoms ; that all substances are composed of indivisible 'atoms' of matter and that different atoms have varying atomic weights.
The development of the electrochemical theory of chemical combinations occurred in the early 19th century as the result of the work of two scientists in particular, J. Berzelius and Humphry Davy , made possible by the prior invention of the voltaic pile by Alessandro Volta.
Davy discovered nine new elements including the alkali metals by extracting them from their oxides with electric current. British William Prout first proposed ordering all the elements by their atomic weight as all atoms had a weight that was an exact multiple of the atomic weight of hydrogen. Newlands devised an early table of elements, which was then developed into the modern periodic table of elements  in the s by Dmitri Mendeleev and independently by several other scientists including Julius Lothar Meyer.
At the turn of the twentieth century the theoretical underpinnings of chemistry were finally understood due to a series of remarkable discoveries that succeeded in probing and discovering the very nature of the internal structure of atoms.
In , J. Thomson of Cambridge University discovered the electron and soon after the French scientist Becquerel as well as the couple Pierre and Marie Curie investigated the phenomenon of radioactivity.
In a series of pioneering scattering experiments Ernest Rutherford at the University of Manchester discovered the internal structure of the atom and the existence of the proton, classified and explained the different types of radioactivity and successfully transmuted the first element by bombarding nitrogen with alpha particles.
His work on atomic structure was improved on by his students, the Danish physicist Niels Bohr and Henry Moseley. The electronic theory of chemical bonds and molecular orbitals was developed by the American scientists Linus Pauling and Gilbert N. Using the entropy of formation data and the enthalpy of formation data, one can determine that the entropy of the reaction is Because both enthalpy and entropy are negative, the spontaneous nature varies with the temperature of the reaction.
The temperature would also determine the spontaneous nature of a reaction if both enthalpy and entropy were positive. When the reaction occurs at a low temperature the free energy change is also negative, which means the reaction is spontaneous. However, if the reaction occurs at high temperature the reaction becomes nonspontaneous, for the free energy change becomes positive when the high temperature is multiplied with a negative entropy as the enthalpy is not as large as the product.
The enthalpy of the reaction is calculated to be Unlike the previous two examples, the temperature has no affect on the spontaneous nature of the reaction. Looking at the formula for spontaneous change one can easily come to the same conclusion, for there is no possible way for the free energy change to be positive. Hence, the reaction is spontaneous at all temperatures.
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Application of the Second Law The second law occurs all around us all of the time, existing as the biggest, most powerful, general idea in all of science.Plus, we regularly update and improve textbook solutions based on student ratings and feedback, so you can be sure you're getting the latest information available. This page was last edited on 15 April , at Science History Institute. When an atom loses an electron and thus has more protons than electrons, the atom is a positively charged ion or cation.
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