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This page was last edited on 12 February , at Lack of affordability may be one of the most significant drivers of the black market in South Africa and Africa where unregulated - and more affordable - products flood the market. Due to the lack of product knowledge and absence of a product description, consumers rely on the reputation of the cream reinforced through positive word of mouth and consumer feedback. The consequence however results in irreversible damage to the skin, a condition known as exogenous ochronosis Supplementary Figure S1.

A more systemic, sustainable intervention is therefore needed at both the local and national governmental level before the colorism pandemic reaches exorbitant proportions.

Part of the solution would be an increased awareness through scientific and social engagement as well as harnessing the influential power of the media. The media plays an influential role in the download and use of skin lightening products. Products are advertised to promote health and beauty.

Billboard advertising in Africa for over 50 years portrayed white-skinned individuals as icons of beauty, as did the print and electronic media industries. Today, in an even greater way, the media plays an influential role in how people live and how they perceive themselves. Television, magazines, newspapers schoolbooks and the likes of social media platforms, Facebook and Twitter, Supplementary Figure S2 further emphasise the importance of image and beauty and how integral they are to achieving success.

This ideology bolsters the perception that a fairer complexion is equated to material and social success Supplementary Figure S3.

Advertisements promote the idea of fairness with slogans such as Successful people, Making your dreams come true, add sparkle to your life and lighter and lovelier. Women claim that the way the television advertises skin lightening products, compels them to prefer lighter skin tones. To tout the skin lightening products, advertisements are usually expensively produced, featuring ultra-light celebrities or super models, and presenting and mixing both traditional and westernized visual signifiers to evoke atmospheres of purity, cleanliness and sophistication Leong, pg.

When women are exposed to, or confronted with visual stimuli from the media, it creates a sense of anxiety and insecurity which results in them engaging in harmful forms of body beautification such as skin-lightening practices. Moving up towards upper Africa the artist Dencia has developed her own skin lightening product called Whitenious where rumours also arise that she herself is using the product.

In contrast to these celebrities encouraging skin lightening use, Lupita Nyongong, in her acceptance speech after winning an Oscar embraced her blackness and spoke openly of her own insecurities over her dark skin and how she learned to love her skin. Celebrities carry credibility and prestige, and their use of skin lighteners are perceived as being acceptable, even encouraged. Consequently, consumers become obsessed with this practise because of the results obtained by its use and positive feelings associated with it.

This can be attributed to the extent to which these products are marketed that is to improve appearance. This model tries to show that many variables, biological, psychological and social, interact to better understand and explain the reality of health and disease.

The human being would not exist without the body. The existence of human being is therefore first of all biological. This biological body is constructed on socio-cultural and psychological events of the individual.

The skin is also a strong metaphor in the social sciences and embodies the realms of the aesthetic, political and economic, the social and cultural, and the genetic and phenotypic, as well as psychological worlds 26 From an Anthropological perspective, the skin has a physical reality as well as a social reality.

The physical communicates shapes, sizes status which are then differentiated by culture. Clothing on skin acts as protection even though some body parts are exposed. These shape, size and surface do have a social function which then applies to extreme forms of body mutilations such as tattooing, and piercings also known as cultural skins.

These cultural skins also constitute them as being part of a group or some culture where they find a sense of belonging. Helman also refers to people as social animals in the sense that they are organised into groups that regulate and perpetuate themselves. He describes culture as how humans organise themselves and the way they view the world which they inhabit.

Celebrity Skin - #185

Therefore in order to understand humans we need to study their society and their culture. The proliferation of skin-lightening creams emphasizes the importance of classification through skin-colour, stigma and preferences for lighter skin in an increasingly globalized world. He emphasizes that on a macro-social level, the conventionalized modifications of skin that comprise the social skin define, not individuals, but categories or classes of individuals thus claiming that the social skin becomes the boundary between social classes Turner, In essence the skin is a marker of our identity.

Skin bleaching is the use of cosmetics lightening products on the skin to look lighter. Many individual mimic the behaviour and attitudes of others with the hope of being like them. Lightness and darkness have moral connotations for example; whiteness or lightness can be associated with youth, innocence, purity, virginity, spirituality and vulnerability, whereas darkness can refer to threat, aggression, danger, virility.

Individuals who are insecure, suffering from low self- esteem are more likely to engage in skin-lightening practices than those individuals who are more confident in their skin. Review on measures to reduce skin lightening Despite the bans and existing health campaigns, the practice of skin lightening continues to grow.

There is a need for greater government bans as well as control on the availability of skin lighteners, the marketing and sale thereof and well as the active ingredients found in these products.

Social marketing is described as a tool that uses the concepts of commercial marketing to create positive social change.

It is founded on the idea that media can shape popular perception and, thus promotes positive behaviour change by marketing ideas of products.

Therefore by promoting ideas around positive self-esteem, public health interventions can better address skin toning alterations.

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The history of skin- lightening practices were discussed by reviewing colonialism and apartheid as mediating factors in skin lightening use age. We also shed light on the reasons for skin lightening use and the dangers behind inappropriate application thereof.

The media portray light skin desirable and beautiful and advertise skin lightening products as a means to solve problem skin.

In their marketing strategies they use models, celebrities and high profile individuals to convey messages of lightness, beauty, wealth etc. The psychosocial effects on the consumer revealed that as a result of internalising the effects of colonialism and apartheid many individuals use skin lightening creams as a means to fit in the still much dominated white supremacy. Lastly there is a great need for stricter government control and policy development in the marketing and distribution of products together with educational programmes to create awareness on the health risk posed by skin lightening products.

References 1. Charles C.

Skin bleaching, self-hate, and black identity in Jamaica. J Black Studies ; De Souza MM. The concept of Skin Bleaching in Africa and its devastating health implications.

Clin Dermatol ; Jablonski N. Living color: the biological and social meaning of skin color. University of California press; Berkley and Los Angeles; Leong S.

Television ads for skin-whitening cosmetics in Hong Kong. Asian Ethnicity ; Skin lightening creams used in Durban, South Africa. Soc Dermatol ; Goldin I.

The poverty of coloured labour preference: economics and ideology in the Western Cape. Levine S. You strike the women, you strike the rock. Thesis in anthropology, Bard College, New York; Smart KS. Into the causes and effects of skin bleaching use in the African community. Iletocpn Creative Thinking; Bellow S, Alster T. Treatment of ochronosis with a Q switched alexandrite laser. Dermatol Surg ; Mbeki G. South Africa: the peasants revolt.October — via Google Books.

Today, these socio-political influences are evident by a shared view, 17 Nahomie Julien that a lighter shade of brown also referred to as yellow-bone is the most attractive skin colour. He'd kept a guy on retainer the whole time [ British Phonographic Industry.

The band sought to use Los Angeles and the state of California as a unifying theme, and began writing what they conceived as a "California album" in During colonisation privileged lighter skin with socioeconomic privilege.

These texts also bear examination in relation to the more specific phenomenon of 'trash cinema'. Canadian Record Music Association. American men's magazines American pornographic magazines Celebrity magazines Defunct magazines of the United States Magazines established in Pornographic men's magazines.

Swedish Albums Chart [67].

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