CCNA Training Report - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. CCNA Training Report for presentation. Foreword: This study guide is intended to provide those pursuing the CCNA certification with a framework of what concepts need to be studied. A Report on Industrial Training CCNA, IIHT, Hudson lines Submitted for the partial fulfillment of Bachelor of technology In E.C. E Submitted By.
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It is major training report of CCNA. CCNA training report. 1. JAI NARAIN COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE, BHOPAL Cisco Certified. place and help you, the CCNA certification candidate, succeed in your endeavors . . Using the Cisco IOS File System to Manage Your .. Sybex offers the CCNA Exam Study Guide in PDF on the CD so you can read. satisfactorily completed his Industrial Training work as a part of course . working in a company in a computer file. Latter, you The CCNA course and exam.
Flow control manages data transmission between devices so that the transmitting device does not send more data than the receiving device can process. Flow Control: Flow control is a function that prevents network congestion by ensuring that transmitting devices do not overwhelm receiving devices with data. A high-speed computer, for example, may generate traffic faster than the network can transfer it, or faster than the destination device can receive and process it.
The three commonly used methods for handling network congestion are buffering, transmitting source-quench message, and windowing. Buffering is used by network devices to temporarily store bursts of excess data in memory until they can be processed.
Occasional data bursts are easily handled by buffering.
Session Layer: The session layer establishes, manages, and terminates communication sessions. Communication sessions consist of service requests and service responses that occur between applications located in different network devices. These requests and responses are coordinated by protocols implemented at the session layer.
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Presentation Layer: The presentation layer provides a variety of coding and conversion functions that are applied to application layer data. These functions ensure that information sent from the application layer of one system would be readable by the application layer of another system.
Some examples of presentation layer coding and conversion schemes include common data representation formats, conversion of character representation formats, common data compression schemes, and common data encryption schemes.
Application Layer: The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user, which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model.
Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners, determining resource availability, and synchronizing communication.
Data Encapsulation: The sending and receiving of data from a source device to the destination device is possible with the help of networking protocols by using data encapsulation. The data is encapsulated with protocol information at each layer of the OSI reference model when a host transmits data to another device across a network.
The Protocol Data Units contain the control information attached to the data at each layer. The information is attached to the header of the data field but can also be in end of the data field or trailer. Encapsulation and De-Encapsulation Process: The encapsulation and de-encapsulation of header control information on each layer of the OSI reference model is as follows: TCP Header Encapsulation: The application-layers user data is converted for transmission on the network.
The data stream is the handed down to the transport layer, which sets up a virtual circuit to the destination. The data stream is then broken up, and a Transport layer header is created and called a segment. The header control information is attached to the Transport layer header of the data field. Each segment is sequenced so that data stream can be put back together on the destination exactly as transmitted.
IP Header Encapsulation: Remember that the 3 and 4 layers work together to rebuild a data stream on a destination host. Mac Header Encapsulation: The Data Link layer receives the packets from the Network layer and placing them on the network medium such as cable or wireless media.
The Data Link layer encapsulates each packet in a frame, and the MAC header carries the source Mac address and destination Mac address.
Physical Layer Encapsulation: Once the frame gets to the destination network, a new frame is used to get the packet to the destination host. To put this frame on the network, it must first be put into a digital signal. On destination side, the receiving devices will synchronize on the digital signal and extract the 1s and 0s from the digital signal. If the information matches then the packed is pulled from the frame, and the frame is discarded. Three types of Ethernet cables are available: In case of straight through cable the 8 wires of cat 5 or cat 6 are connected with Rj45 connectrors serially means 1 to 8.
The straight through cable is used to connect Host to switch or hub Router to switch or hub. Four wires are used in straight through cable to connect Ethernet devices. Cross Over Cable: Cross Over Cable TB: A Cisco includes not only Ethernet and serial ports, but also console and auxiliary ports. Note that hardware ports are numbered nominally starting at 0. Therefore on a system with only one Ethernet port, that port is referred to as Ethernet 0.
It is used not only to explain communication protocols but to develop them as well. It separates the functions performed by communication protocols into manageable layers stacked on top of each other.
Each layer in the stack performs a specific function in the process of communicating over a network.
Layer Description Layer 4: The Application layer consists of application programs and serves as the windows, or network interface. It is Application Layer through this window that all exchange of meaningful information occurs between communication users. Layer 3: Provides end-to-end data delivery services. Host-to-Host Transport Layer Layer 2: Defines the datagram or frame format and handles routing data through an internetwork.
Layer 1: Defines how to access a specific network topology such as Ethernet or Token-Ring. The but port number of the process that originated the TCP segment on the source device. DestinationPort 2 DestinationPort: The bit port number of the process that is the ultimate intended recipient of the message on the destination device.
Sequence Number 4 Sequence Number: For normal transmissions, the sequence number of the first byte of data in this segment. The first byte of data will be given the next sequence number after the contents of this field, as described in the topic on sequence number synchronization. Acknowledgement 4 Number Acknowledgement Number: When the ACK bit is set, this segment Number is serving as an acknowledgement in addition to other possible duties and this field contains the sequence number the source is next expecting the destination to send.
See the topic describing TCP data transfer for details. Specifies the number of bit words of data in the TCP header. In other words, this value times four equals the number of 4 bits bytes in the header, which must always be a multiple of four.
As mentioned, TCP does not use a separate format for control messages instead certain hits are sent to indicate the communication of control information.
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Window 2 Windows: Indicates the number of octets of data the sender of this segment is willing to accept from the receiver at one time. This normal corresponds to the current size of the buffer allocated to accept data for this connection.
This field is, in other words, the current receive window size for the device sending this segment. See the data transfer mechanics topic for details. Checksum 2 Checksum: It is used to protect the entire TCP segment against not just errors in transmission, but also errors in delivery.
Optional alternate checksum methods are also supported. Urgent Pointer 2 Urgent Pointer: Used in conjunction with the URG control bit for priority data transfer. This field contains the sequence number of the last byte of urgent data. See the priority data transfer topic for details. Options Variable Options: Each of the options can be either one byte in length or variable in length.
The first byte is the Option-Kind subfield. Subfield Size Name bytes Description Option-Kind 1 Option-Kind: Specifies the option type. Option-Length 1 Option-Length: The length of the entire option in bytes, including the Option-Kind and Option-Length fields.
Option-Data Variable Option-Data: The option data itself in at least one oddball case, this fields omitted making Option-Length equal to 2 Padding Variable Padding: If the Option field is not a multiple 0f 32 bits in length enough zeroes are added to pad the header so it is a multiple of 32 bits. Data Variable Data: The bytes of data being sent in the segment. Encapsulation is used to isolate each of the layers in the protocol stack.
Each layer frames the data prepending the data with its own header information. In the sending machine, the layer places its own header information in front of the data it gets from the layer above before passing it to the layer below. In the receiving machine, each layer first interprets and then strips the header information from frames received from the layer below before passing them up to the layer above.
In reality it is not quite so simple. Today, IP has become a worldwide standard for home and business networking as well. Our network routers, Web browsers, email programs, instant messaging software — all rely on IP or other network protocols layered on top of IP. This reduces the number of addresses that can be allocated as public Internet addresses.
The IP is a series of numbers which is called your IP address. IP was first standardized in September The specification required that each system attached to an IP-based Internet be assigned a unique, bit Internet address value. Loopback is test mechanism of network adapters. Messages sent to Instead, the adapter intercepts all loopback messages and returns them to the sending application.
Each class B network address has bit network prefix, with the two highest order bits set to and a bit network number, followed by a bits host number. Multicast is a mechanism for defining groups of nodes and sending IP messages to that group rather than to every node on the LAN broadcast or just one other node unicast. Some research organizations use Class E addressed for experimental purposes. However, nodes that try to use these addresses on the internet will be unable to communicate properly.
A special type of IP address is the limited broadcast address By organizing hosts into logical groups, subnetting can improve network security and performance.
Perhaps the most recognizable aspect of subnetting is the subnet mask. Instead, subnet masks accompany an address and the two values work together. Therefore, is invalid.
Because these IP addresses are public, they allow other people to know about and access your computer, like a Web server.
In some cases, you do not want people to access your computer or you want to restrict certain individuals from accessing your computer or server. The table below lists these reserved ranges of the IP address space.
Class Private start address Private finish address A That exact notation can vary by operating system.
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Generally, the broadcast address is found by taking the bit complement of the subnet mask and then OR-ing it bitwise with the IP address. CIDR was introduced to improve both address space utilization and routing scalability in the internet. It was needed because of the rapid growth of the Internet and growth of the IP routing tables held in the Internet Notation To convert an IP dotted-quad address to binary, take each decimal number of the dotted-quad and look up the binary equivalent in the Binary Convrsion Table below.
You will have a bit binary numbers as the result. Subnetting Subnetting, as this process is more commonly called, is a remarkably logical and mathematical process.
Understanding the mathematics of subnetting helps you develop and implement efficient subnetting schemes that make better use of available address spaces. Set your budget and timeframe. Outline your proposal.
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Username Valid username. I am looking to Hire Work. Username or Email. Password I forgot my password. Ethernet is subject to the "" rule regarding repeater placement. In a typical LAN. In a network that uses repeater. Cut-through switches run faster because when a packet comes in. Packet destined to the same segment is dropped. We like to call this single network a collision domain. Computer network is very important for every business.
Networking two or more computer not only saves money but also saves space. Do we ignore the communication aspect? Networking enhances effective communication among members of an organization or a company.
In computing. We need networks in most things we do in life. Computer network helps in sharing resources. Instead of downloading all hardware for each computer. Aside sharing information. It is quite obvious that computer network helps to save cost for an organization. Networking is a very vital and delicate area in computing. Networking in computer is unavoidable. I wonder what the world of computer will be without computer networks.
When you network computers together. With appropriate software. In addition to this. A computer network is a connection of two or more computers through a cable or wireless connection. This in addition makes the user's environment friendly.
Computer network enable computer users to share hardware. The importance of networking two or more computers can not be overemphasized. We can not really quantify the importance of networking two or more PC. With computer network. Computer network gives users the opportunity to use remote programs and remote databases either of the same organization or from other enterprises or public sources.
This was very interesting field and we covered a subject know as Data Communication and Network which we have studied in 6th sem.
It makes effective communication possible and helps to eliminate unnecessary waste of time and duplication or resources.
The desire result was obtain in every experiments and work as a result we made a successful network capable of strong communications.
The importance of having a computer networks are really numerous. Data transfer and Call termination. A connection oriented communication has the following characteristics: In contrast. In order to pass any Cisco exam. Appletalk Presentation Performs protocol conversion. Provides communications services to applications by Application identifying and establishing the availability of other computers as well as to determine if sufficient resources exist for communication purposes.
The OSI model is a layered model and a conceptual standard used for defining standards to promote multi-vendor integration as well as maintain constant interfaces and isolate changes of implementation to a single layer. The OSI Model consists of 7 layers as follows: Layer Description Provides network access for applications. Handles connection establishment.
It is NOT application or protocol specific. Router and brouter IP. Physical Physical layer works with the physical media for transmitting and receiving data bits via certain encoding schemes. Something likes FA-BC. On the contrary. The table above mentions the term "MAC Address". A MAC address is a 48 bit address for uniquely identifying devices on the network. Transport Repackages messages into smaller formats. Multiplexer and repeater None Table 2.
The first letter of each word corresponds to the first letter of one of the layers. The MAC sublayer is important to remember. OSI Model Here is an easy way to memorize the order of the layers: It also includes specifications for certain mechanical connection features. It is a little corny. It is the process in which the information in a protocol is wrapped in the data section of another protocol. Data encapsulation takes place in the OSI model. And of course. When discussing the OSI model it is important to keep in mind the differences between "Connection-oriented" and "Connectionless" communications.
For more information about ARP and related protocols. The first 6 digits specify the manufacture. The process can be broken down into the following steps: MAC addresses cannot be duplicated in the network or problems will occur. Communications protocols define the rules and data formats for exchanging information in a computer network. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics.
A computer network. Each computer or device on the network is a node. Current wired LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. Well-known communications protocols include Ethernet. All interconnected devices must understand the network layer layer 3. LAN Typical library network. Fig 2. LANs can be connected to Wide area network by using routers. Those inside the library. It would be more correct to call them access routers.
A sample LAN is depicted in the accompanying diagram. The defining characteristics of LANs. An important function is the sharing of Internet access. A backbone can tie together diverse networks in the same building.
In the case of a university campus-based campus network. Cat5 cabling etc. A large corporation which has many locations may have a backbone network that ties all of these locations together. Network performance management including network congestion are critical parameters taken into account when designing a network backbone.
SANs are primarily used to make storage devices. A SAN typically has its own network of storage devices that are generally not accessible through the local area network by other devices.Name of Student: The core diameter is about 9. Routers can talk to each other, however, in the real routing world, there are so many different routing technologies available, that it is not as simple as just enabling Routing Information Protocol RIP.
This layer may also perform modulation and demodulation as required. We share common experiences and hobbies well beyond our local neighbourhood, city, or region.