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Editorial Reviews. From the Back Cover. Architectural Graphics Third Edition By Francis D.K. download Architectural Graphics: Read 99 Books Reviews - site. com. Editorial Reviews. From the Back Cover. AN UPDATE TO THE CLASSIC INTRODUCTION TO eBook features: Highlight, take notes, and search in the book; In this edition, page numbers are just like the physical edition; Length: pages; Enhanced. The bestselling guide to architectural drawing, with newinformation, examples, and resources Architectural Graphics is the classic bestsellingreference by one of .
We categorize these techniques into expanded views, cutaway views, phantom views, and sequential views. Expanded Views To develop what we call an expanded or exploded view, we merely shift portions of a paraline drawing to new positions in space.
The finished drawing appears to be an explosion frozen at a point in time when the relationships between the parts of the whole are most clear. Remember that, as with other drawing types, the larger the scale of a paraline drawing, the more detail you have to show. This strategy can also effectively manifest the relation of an interior to the exterior environment.
Removing a floor permits a view up into a space. When a composition exhibits bilateral symmetry, we can make this cut along the central axis and indicate the footprint or plan view of the part removed. In this case, the trajectory of the cut should clarify the nature of the overall form building as well as the organization and arrangement of interior spaces. Indicating the external form of what is removed helps the viewer retain a sense of the whole.
This strategy effectively allows us to unveil an interior space or construction without removing any of its bounding planes or encompassing elements. Thus, we are able to simultaneously see the whole composition and its internal structure and arrangement. By organizing elements and assemblies of a three-dimensional construction into separate groups or layers, we can selectively control their location, visibility, and appearance, as illustrated on this and the facing page.
In this case, each floor level successively builds upon the preceding one. Linear perspective is a technique for describing three-dimensional volumes and spatial relationships on a two-dimensional surface by means of lines that converge as they recede into the depth of a drawing. While multiview and paraline drawings present views of an objective reality, linear perspective offers scenes of an optical reality.
It depicts how a construction or environment might appear to the eye of an observer looking in a specific direction from a particular vantage point in space. L i n e ar Pe r s pe ctive Linear perspective is valid only for monocular vision. A perspective drawing assumes that the observer sees through a single eye.
We almost never view anything in this way. Even with the head in a fixed position, we see through both eyes, which are constantly in motion, roving over and around objects and through ever-changing environments. Thus, linear perspective can only approximate the complex way our eyes actually function. Still, linear perspective provides us with a method for correctly placing three-dimensional objects in pictorial space and illustrating the degree to which their forms appear to diminish in size as they recede into the depth of a drawing.
The uniqueness of a linear perspective lies in its ability to provide us with an experiential view of space. This distinct advantage, however, also gives rise to the difficulty often connected with perspective drawing. The challenge in mastering linear perspective is resolving the conflict between our knowledge of the thing itself—how we conceive its objective reality—and the appearance of something—how we perceive its optical reality—as seen through a single eye of the observer.
This convergence of sight lines differentiates perspective projection from the other two major projection systems—orthographic projection and oblique projection—in which the projectors remain parallel to each other.
The picture plane is always perpendicular to the central axis of vision CAV. The cone of vision serves as a guide in determining what is to be included within the boundaries of a perspective drawing.
Only a small portion Elevation of the immediate foreground falls within the cone of vision. As the cone of vision reaches out to gather in what the observer sees, it widens its field, and the middleground and background become more expansive. Being familiar with these pictorial effects helps us understand how lines, planes, and volumes should appear in linear perspective and how to place objects Pa c ral correctly in the space of a perspective drawing.
If the lines are extended to infinity, they will appear to meet at a point on the picture plane PP. This point is the vanishing point VP for that particular pair VP for ab, cd of lines and all other lines parallel to them. VP for ad, bc The first rule of convergence is that each set of parallel lines has its own vanishing point. A set of parallel lines consists only of those lines that Perspective View are parallel to one another.
If we look at a cube, for example, we can see that its edges comprise three 3 principal sets of parallel lines, one set of vertical lines parallel to the X-axis, and two sets of horizontal lines, 3 perpendicular to each other and parallel to the Y- and 3 Z-axes.
Each line in the PP set, however, will diminish in size according to icular to Perpend its distance from the observer. If it Fall slopes downward as it recedes, its vanishing ing awa point lies below HL. Therefore, the projected size of an element remains the same regardless of its distance from the picture plane. In linear perspective, however, the converging projectors or sight lines alter Orthographic Projection the apparent size of a line or plane according to its PP distance from the picture plane.
As the same-size tiles recede, they appear smaller and flatter as they rise and approach the horizon. Other Pictorial Effects Perspective drawings also possess other pictorial characteristics found in multiview and paraline drawing systems. As this viewpoint changes—as the observer moves up or down, to the left or right, forward or back—the extent and emphasis of what the observer sees also change. SP of the perspective. A distinct advantage in using 3D CAD and modeling programs is that once the necessary data is entered for a three-dimensional construction, the software allows us to manipulate the perspective variables and fairly quickly produce a number of perspective views for evaluation.
Judgment of what a perspective image conveys, whether produced by hand or with the aid of the computer, remains the responsibility of its author. Illustrated on this and the facing page are examples of computer-generated perspectives, showing how the various perspective variables affect the resulting images. The differences in the perspective views may be subtle but they do affect our perception of the scale of the spaces and our judgment of the spatial relationships the images convey.
However, one should perspective view. Widening the angle of view to include more always attempt to maintain a reasonable position for of a space within a perspective can easily lead to distortion of the observer within the space being represented. The closer PP is to the station point SP , the smaller the perspective image.
The farther away PP is, the larger the image. Assuming all other variables remain constant, the perspective images are identical in all respects except size. Based on these three major sets of lines, there are three types of linear perspective: The subject does not change, only our view of it, but the change of view affects how the sets of parallel lines appear to converge in linear perspective.
The lines that are parallel with CAV, however, will appear to converge at the center of vision C. This is the one point referred to in one-point perspective.
The two sets HL of horizontal lines, however, are now oblique to the picture plane PP and will appear to converge, one set to the left and the other to the right. These are the two points referred to in two- point perspective. These are the three points referred to in three-point perspective. Note that each type of perspective does not imply that there are only one, two, or three vanishing points in a perspective. For example, if we look at a simple 4 gable-roofed form, we can see that there are potentially five 1 5 vanishing points, since we have one set of vertical lines, two 2 sets of horizontal lines, and two sets of inclined lines.
All lines parallel to these axes are also parallel to the picture plane PP , and therefore retain their true orientation and do not appear to converge. For Parallel to PP this reason, one-point perspective is also known as parallel perspective. This is the particular n dic rpe vanishing point referred to in one-point perspective. Pe The one-point perspective system is particularly Parallel to PP effective in depicting the interior of a spatial volume because the display of five bounding faces provides a clear sense of enclosure.
For this reason, designers often use one-point perspectives to present experiential views of street scenes, formal gardens, courtyards, colonnades, and interior rooms. The three-dimensional network of uniformly spaced points and lines enables us to correctly establish the form and dimensions of an interior or Plan Views Perspective Views exterior space, as well to regulate the position and size of objects within the space. What do we wish to illustrate in the perspective view and why?
PP need not be drawn at the same scale as the plan setup. The position of C can be determined from the plan setup. The unit of measurement is typically one foot; we can, however, use smaller or larger increments GL depending on the scale of the drawing and the amount of detail desired in the perspective view. We call this vanishing point a diagonal point DP.
A half-distance point will cut off two- foot increments in depth for every one-foot increment in width: With the same grid, we can also locate the positions and relative sizes of other elements within the space, such as furniture and lighting fixtures. Note that, particularly in interior views, properly cropped foreground elements can enhance the feeling that one is in a space rather than on the outside looking in.
The center of vision C is closer to the left-hand wall so that the bending of the space to the right can be visualized. The change in scale between the right-hand shelving and patio doors beyond, and a similar change between the foreground table and the window seat beyond, serve to emphasize the depth of the perspective. It therefore is able to illustrate both the constructional aspects of a design as well as the quality of the spaces formed by the structure. Because the section cut is assumed to be coincident with the picture plane PP of the perspective, it serves as a ready reference for making vertical and horizontal measurements for the HL C DPR perspective drawing.
The height of HL and position of C determine what is seen within the perspective view. As a rule of thumb, the distance from C to DPL or DPR should be at least as great as the width or height of the building section, whichever is larger.
The principal vertical axis is parallel to PP, and all lines parallel to it remain vertical and parallel in the perspective drawing. The two principal horizontal axes, however, are oblique to PP. All lines parallel to these axes therefore appear to converge to two vanishing points on the horizon line HL , one set 3 to the left and the other to the right. These are the two points referred to in two-point perspective. Unlike one-point Horizonta nta l l Horizo perspectives, two-point perspectives tend to be neither 1 2 symmetrical nor static.
A two-point perspective is par- ticularly effective in illustrating the three-dimensional form of objects in space ranging in scale from a chair to the massing of a building. The orientation of the two horizontal axes to PP determines how much we will see of the two major sets of vertical planes and the degree to which they are foreshortened in perspective. Determine what you wish to illustrate. Look toward the most significant areas and try to visualize from your plan drawing what will be seen in the foreground, middleground, and background.
Review the perspective variables on pages — Remember that the vanishing point for any set of parallel lines is that point at which a line drawn from SP, parallel to the set, intersects PP. The diagonal point in one-point perspective is one example of such a measuring point. In two-point perspective, you can establish two measuring points MPL and MPR for transferring dimensions along the ground line GL to the two major horizontal baselines that are receding in perspective.
This intersection is MPR. For example, if you have a series of parallel diagonals in your design, establish their vanishing point as well. This scale need not be the same as the scale of the plan setup.
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The unit of measurement typically is one left baseline in perspective by drawing lines to foot; we can use smaller or larger increments, however, MPR. Transfer scale measurements on GL to the depending on the scale of the drawing and the amount right baseline by drawing lines to MPL.
These are of detail desired in the perspective view. It is important measurements along the major horizontal baselines to see the perspective grid as a network of points in perspective.
When one-foot squares The grid of squares facilitates the plotting of become too small to draw accurately, use two-foot points in three-dimensional space, regulates or four-foot squares instead. Each unit of measurement can represent a foot, four feet, a hundred yards, or even a mile.
Rotating and reversing the grid can also vary the point of view. Therefore, you can use the same 8 grid to draw an interior perspective of a room, an exterior perspective of a courtyard, as well as an aerial view of a city block or neighborhood. Note that the left vanishing point VPL lies within the drawing, enabling three sides of the space to be shown and a greater sense of enclosure to be felt.
Because VPL lies within the drawing, greater emphasis is placed on the right- hand portion of the space. If the left-hand side of the space is to be emphasized, use a reverse image of the grid. But there are techniques we can use to determine the relative heights, widths, and depths of objects in the pictorial space of a perspective drawing. Measuring Height and Width In linear perspective, any line in the picture plane PP displays its true direction and true length at the scale of the picture plane.
We can therefore use any such line as a measuring line ML to scale dimensions in a perspective drawing. While a measuring Vertical ML line may have any orientation in the picture plane, it typically is vertical or horizontal and used to measure true heights or widths. The ground line GL is one example of a horizontal measuring line. Digital Measurements Perspective measurements are not a major issue in 3D-modeling programs because the software uses mathematical formulas to process the three-dimensional data we have already entered.
Various methods of perspective construction establish depth in different ways. Once we establish an initial depth judgment, however, we can make succeeding depth judgments in proportion to the first. Subdividing Depth Measurements There are two methods for subdividing depth measurements in linear perspective: Method of Diagonals In any projection system, we can subdivide a rectangle into four equal parts by drawing two diagonals. Lines drawn through this midpoint, parallel to the edges of the plane, will subdivide the rectangle and its receding sides into equal parts.
We can repeat this procedure to subdivide 5e par qual sp a rectangle into any even number of parts. These mark off the desired spaces, which diminish as they recede in perspective. If the receding line is horizontal in space, then ML will be a horizontal line in the drawing. These lines subdivide the receding line into the same proportional segments.
B A Extending a Depth Measurement If the forward edge of a rectangular plane is parallel to the picture plane PP , we can extend and duplicate its depth in perspective. The distance from the first to the second edge is identical eq. The reason for this is that, in the latter perspective drawing. If perpendicular or oblique to PP, however, an inclined set of lines will appear to converge at a vanishing point above or below the horizon line HL. The easiest way to do this is to visualize the inclined line as being the hypotenuse of a right triangle.
If we can draw the sides of the triangle in proper perspective, we can connect the end points to establish the g isin inclined line.
An inclined l set of parallel lines is not horizontal and therefore z onta Hori will not converge on HL. If the set rises upward as it recedes, its vanishing point will be above HL; if it falls as it recedes, it will appear to converge L in ef below HL.
This intersection is the vanishing point VPi for the inclined line and all other lines parallel to it. Mark this point A.
The horizon line, Plan for example, is the vanishing trace along which SP all horizontal sets of parallel lines converge. This is the vanishing trace for the vertical plane containing the inclined set of parallel lines. We are not concerned yet with the individual treads of the stairway.
This occurs most frequently when the plane of the circle is horizontal and at the height of the horizon line HL , or when the plane of the circle is vertical and aligned with the central axis of vision CAV. The larger the circle, the more subdivisions are necessary to ensure smoothness of the elliptical shape. Checking the relationship Tangent between the major and minor axes of elliptical shapes helps to ensure accuracy of the foreshortening of circles in perspective.
A reflecting surface Object presents an inverted or mirror image of the object being reflected. For example, if an object is resting SP directly on a reflecting surface, the reflected image is a direct, inverted copy of the original. Thus, in a perspective view of the reflection, the reflected image follows the same perspective system of lines already established for the original image.
Each reflection therefore doubles the apparent dimension of the space in a direction perpendicular to the mirrored surface. Therefore, the major sets of parallel lines in the reflection appear to converge to the same vanishing points as do the corresponding sets of lines in the subject. For example, the waterline establishes the horizontal reflecting plane. Point o lies in this plane. While lines are essential to the task of delineating contour and shape, there are also visual qualities of light, texture, mass, and space that cannot be fully described by line alone.
In order to model the surfaces of forms and convey a sense of light, we rely on the rendering of tonal values. Ton a l Val u e s Vision results from the stimulation of nerve cells in the retina of the eye, signaling patterns of light intensity and color. Our visual system processes these patterns of light and dark, and is able to extract specific features of our environment—edges, contours, size, movement, and color.
If seeing patterns of light and dark is essential to our perception of objects, then establishing contrasts in value discernible to the eye is the key to the graphic definition of light, form, and space. Through the interplay of tonal values we are able to: The visual effect of each technique varies according to the nature of the stroke, the medium, and the texture of the drawing surface.
Regardless of the shading technique we use, we must always be fully aware of the tonal value being depicted. For example, a tonal value superimposed upon a darker tone will appear lighter than the same value set against a lighter tone.
Covering the paper surface entirely can cause a drawing to lose depth and vitality. The strokes may be long or short, mechanically ruled or drawn freehand, and executed with either a pen or a pencil on smooth or rough paper. When spaced close enough together, the lines lose their individuality and merge to form a tonal value. We therefore rely primarily on the spacing and density of lines to control the lightness or darkness of a value.
While thickening the linear strokes can serve to deepen the darkest values, using too thick of a line can result in an unintentional coarseness and heaviness of texture. Maintaining the diagonal direction of the strokes in this manner avoids confusion with the underlying drawing and unifies the various tonal areas of a drawing composition. Remember that direction alone, however, has no impact on tonal value.
With texture and contour, the series of lines can also convey material characteristics, such as the grain of wood, the marbling of stone, or the weave of fabric. Be careful not to use too dense a grade of lead or press so hard that the pencil point embosses the drawing surface.
You can only control the spacing and density of the hatching. As with hatching, the strokes may be long or short, mechanically ruled or drawn freehand, and executed with either a pen or a pencil on smooth or rough paper.
The multidirectional nature of the hatching also makes it easier describe the orientation and curvature of surfaces. While simple hatching creates the lighter range of values in a drawing, crosshatching renders the darker range. The freehand nature of scribbling gives us great flexibility in describing tonal values and textures.
We can vary the shape, density, and direction of the strokes to achieve a wide range of tonal values, textures, and visual expression. Applying stippling is a slow and time-consuming procedure that requires the utmost patience and care in controlling the size and spacing of the dots.
The best results occur when using a fine- tipped ink pen on a smooth drawing surface. The procedure involves applying stippling over faintly drawn shapes of the areas to be toned.
We use tightly spaced dots to define sharp, distinct edges, and a looser spacing of dots to imply softer, more rounded contours. If the scale of the dots is too large for the toned area, too coarse a texture will result. Image-processing software further allows the creation and application of visual textures, some of which mimic the traditional techniques outlined on the previous pages.
Shown on this and the facing page are two digital examples using simple gray tones and gradients. The first illustrates a line-and-tone technique to model the forms.
Instead, the range of tonal values serves primarily to define the orientation of the surfaces relative to an assumed light source. In between exists an intermediate range of grays. A familiar form of this range is represented by a gray or value scale having ten equal gradations from white to black. It is worthwhile to practice producing both a stepped series and a graduated scale of tonal values using a variety of media and techniques.
It can also describe the characteristic surface qualities of familiar materials, as the hewn appearance of stone, the grain of wood, and the weave of a fabric. This is tactile texture that can be felt by touch. Our senses of sight and touch are closely intertwined. As our eyes read the visual texture of a surface, we often respond to its apparent tactile quality without actually touching it.
We base these physical reactions on the textural qualities of similar materials we have experienced in the past. In most cases, tonal value is more critical than texture to the representation of light, shade, and the way they model forms in space. Shading with tonal values extends a simple drawing of contours into the three-dimensional realm of forms arranged in space.
Since the definition of edges gives rise to shape recognition, we look to edges to discover the configuration of the surfaces of a three-dimensional form. We must therefore be careful how we define the nature of the edge or boundary wherever two shapes of contrasting values meet. The skillful manipulation of tonal edges is critical to defining the nature and solidity of a surface or object.
We define hard edges with an abrupt and incisive shift in tonal value. We create soft edges with a gradual change in tonal value or diffuse tonal contrast. Light is the radiant energy that illuminates our world and enables us to see three-dimensional forms in space.
We do not actually see light but rather the effects of light. Within these patterns of light and dark shapes, we can recognize the following elements: The simplest approach is ray casting. Ray Casting Ray casting is a technique that analyzes the three-dimensional geometry of forms and determines the illumination and shading of surfaces based on their orientation to an assumed light source.
The primary advantage of ray casting is the speed with which an illuminated three-dimensional image or scene can be generated, often in real-time.
This makes ray casting a useful tool in preliminary design to study the solar consequences of the massing and composition of building forms and the shadows they cast. See pages — for examples. Ray casting, however, does not take into account the way light travels after intersecting a surface and therefore cannot accurately render reflections, refractions, or the natural fall off of shadows.
For this, ray tracing is necessary. Ray tracing is a digital technique for tracing these paths to simulate the optical effects of illumination. Local illumination is a basic level of ray tracing that is limited to direct illumination and the specular reflections of light rays.
While local illumination does not take into account the diffuse inter-reflection of light among the surfaces in a three-dimensional space or scene, some ray tracing programs can approximate this ambient light in their lighting algorithms. Local illumination: Global illumination techniques use sophisticated algorithms to more accurately simulate the illumination of a space or scene.
These algorithms take into account not only the light rays that are emitted directly from one or more sources. They also track the light rays as they are reflected or refracted from one surface to another, especially the diffuse inter- reflections that occur among the surfaces in a space or scene. This enhanced level of simulation comes at a cost, however. The process requires time and is computationally intensive, and should therefore be used only when appropriate to the design task at hand.
Global illumination: These two drawings of the Piazza San Marco in Venice illustrate how the tonal contrast can be achieved either by rendering the building as a dark figure against a light background or by reversing the figure-ground relationship and rendering the tonal values of the site.
These values can effectively isolate and provide a base for elements that are situated above the floor plane.
The lower the floor plane, the darker its value. Be sure, however, that there is sufficient contrast to emphasize the dominance of the cut elements. If necessary, outline the cut elements with a heavy line weight. The most important distinctions to establish are between the cut through the ground plane in front of the building elevation and the building itself, and between the building elevation and its background. Tonal values are therefore used primarily to articulate the orthogonal relationship between horizontal and vertical planes.
Toning the horizontal planes not only establishes a visual base for the drawing but also aids in defining the shape and orientation of the vertical planes. Perspective drawings should use the principles of atmospheric perspective to enhance the sense of spatial depth. Digital Rendering Although improvements continue to be made, the rendering of atmospheric and texture perspective remains problematic in many graphics programs. Image-processing software, however, allows us to modify digital drawings and simulate the pictorial effects of atmospheric and texture perspective.
The depiction of light, shade, and shadow can model the surfaces of a design, describe the disposition of its masses, and articulate the depth and character of its details.
The sun is so large and distant a Su source that its light rays are considered to be parallel. The ne corollary to this is that any point that is not in light cannot do w li Sha cast a shadow because light does not strike it. A shadow can never be cast on a surface in shade, nor can it exist within another shadow. It generally requires two related views—either a plan and elevation or two related L ig elevations—and the transferring of information back ht ray Pro Pro and forth from one view to the other.
This convention produces shadows of width or depth equal to the width or depth of the projections that cast the shadows. This feature can be especially useful in the schematic design phase to study the form of a building or the massing of a building complex on a site and to evaluate the impact of the shadows they cast on adjacent buildings and outdoor areas.
While efficient and useful for preliminary design studies, ray casting does not take into account the way the light rays from an illuminating source are absorbed, reflected, or refracted by the surfaces of forms and spaces. For a visual comparison of digital lighting methods, see pages — The hypotenuse of the triangular shadow end points.
If the line intersects the surface, plane establishes the direction of the light rays, its shadow must begin at that juncture. This is also true when the line is parallel to the straight lines in a curved surface receiving the shadow.
The shape of the shadow is elliptical since the section of a cylinder cut by any plane oblique to its axis is an ellipse. The most convenient method of determining the shadow of a circle is to determine the shadow of the square or octagon circumscribing the given circle, and then to inscribe within it the elliptical shadow of the circle.
It is usually best to begin by determining the Plan View shadows of significant points in the form, such as the end points of straight lines and the tangent points of curves.
The shadow of the line will appear to be straight regardless of the shape of the surface receiving the shadow. In clarifying the relative depth of projections, Elevation View overhangs, and recesses within the massing of a building, shade and shadows can also model the relief and texture of surfaces. Rather, they merely indicate the relative heights of the parts of a building above the ground plane.
However, they may be used to emphasize the cut elements and the relative heights of objects within the space. However, they can be used effectively to distinguish Alti tud e between horizontal and vertical elements, and the three- dimensional nature of their forms. To construct shade and shadows in a paraline drawing, it is necessary to assume a source and direction of light.
Deciding on a direction of light is a problem in composition as well as communication. It is important to remember that cast shadows should clarify rather than confuse the nature of forms and their spatial relationships.
There are occasions when it may be desirable to determine the actual conditions of light, shade, and shadow. For example, when studying the effects of solar radiation and shadow patterns on thermal comfort and energy conservation, it is necessary to construct shades and shadows using the actual sun angles for specific times and dates of the year. Within the shadow or area in shade, there is usually some variation in value due to the reflected light from adjacent lit surfaces.
This intersection s represents the source of the light rays, and is above HL when the light source is in front of the observer and below HL when behind the observer. The shadow and the bearing direction therefore share the same vanishing point. Determine where the bearing of the shadow meets the vertical surface. Both the casting edge and its shadow therefore VP for light rays share the same vanishing point. In each of the major drawing systems, we do this by extending the ground line and plane to include adjacent structures and site features.
In addition to the physical context, we should indicate the scale and intended use of spaces by including human figures and furnishings. We can also attempt to describe the ambience of a place by depicting the quality of light, the colors and textures of materials, the scale and proportion of the space, or the cumulative effect of details. Pe op l e The viewer of a drawing relates to the human figures within it and is thus drawn into the scene. Therefore, in the drawing of architectural and urban spaces, we include people to: Scale Important aspects to consider in the drawing of human figures are: We can Use and Activity therefore simply scale the normal height of people in elevations and section drawings.
Since the view is three- dimensional, however, the figures should have some degree of roundness to indicate their volume. Then we can extend this spot vertically and place the eyes of the head of each figure on the horizon line. The principles of linear perspective can be used to shift the figure right or left, up or down, or into the depth of the perspective. We therefore need to draw human figures in proper size and proportion. Instead, figures should be given a sense of volume, especially in paraline and perspective views.
Then the established proportions are used to draw the same person sitting down. What activity should occur in important spatial features or distract from the focus of this room or space? The same principles that govern the scale, clothing, placement, and gesturing in hand drawing should apply to the use of digital images of people in architectural settings. The ability to produce photorealistic images of people is seductive. Keep in mind that the graphic style with which we populate architectural drawings should not distract or detract from the architectural subject matter.
The figures should have a similar level of abstraction and be compatible with the graphic style of the drawn setting. Their placement should remind us that there should be places on which to sit, lean, rest our elbow or foot, or simply touch.
Digital Libraries Many CAD and modeling programs include ready-made libraries or templates of furniture elements. These can be easily copied, resized, and placed directly into drawings. These include: With these landscaping elements, we can: Different types of branch structures are illustrated below. The amount of detail rendered should be consistent with the scale and style of the drawing. Draw these outlines freehand to give the foliage a textural quality.
It is therefore necessary to differentiate between deciduous trees, conifers, and palms. As always, the type of trees selected should be appropriate to the geographic location of the architecture.
The outline of foliage can be suggested with dotted or lightly drawn freehand lines. Foreground elements typically possess dark, saturated colors and sharply defined contrasts in value.
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As elements move farther away, their colors become lighter and more subdued, and their tonal contrasts more diffuse. This can sometimes be accomplished simply with an articulated profile line. This area therefore requires more detail and sharp contrasts in tonal value. Trees and landscaping are shown merely as shapes of tonal value and texture.
As with digital images of people, the ability to produce photorealistic images of trees and other landscape elements can be seductive. Keep in mind that the graphic style of site and contextual elements should not distract or detract from the architectural subject matter.
Their graphic description should have the same level of abstraction and be compatible with the graphic style of the drawn setting. These drawings describe a design proposal in a graphic manner intended to persuade an audience of its value. The audience may be a client, a committee, or merely someone browsing for an idea.
Although the drawings that comprise a presentation may be excellent two-dimensional graphics worthy of an exhibition, they are merely tools for communicating a design idea, never ends in themselves. A rc hi te c tural Presentatio ns Unless presentation drawings are comprehensible and persuasive—their conventions understood and their substance meaningful—a presentation will be weak and ineffective.
An effective presentation, however, also possesses important collective characteristics. Point of View Be clear about design intent. A presentation should communicate the central idea or concept of a design scheme. Graphic diagrams and text are effective means of articulating and clarifying the essential aspects of a design scheme, especially when they are visually related to the more common types of design drawing. Efficiency Be economical. An effective presentation employs economy of means, utilizing only what is necessary to communicate an idea.
Any graphic elements of a presentation that are distracting and ends in themselves can obscure the intent and purpose of the presentation. Clarity Be articulate. At a minimum, presentation drawings should explain a design clearly and in enough detail so that viewers unfamiliar with it will be able to understand the design proposal. Eliminate unintended distractions, such as those caused by ambiguous figure-ground relationships or inappropriate groupings of drawings.
Too often, we can be blind to these glitches, because we know what we want to communicate and therefore cannot read our own work in an objective manner. Accuracy Avoid presenting distorted or incorrect information. Presentation drawings should accurately simulate a possible reality and the consequences of future actions so that any decisions made based on the information presented are sound and reasonable.
In an effective presentation, no one segment is inconsistent with or detracts from the whole. Unity, not to be confused with uniformity, depends on: Continuity Each segment of a presentation should relate to what precedes it and what follows, reinforcing all the other segments of the presentation. The principles of unity and continuity are mutually self-supporting; one cannot be achieved without the other. The factors that produce one invariably reinforce the other.
At the same time, however, we can bring into focus the central idea of a design through the placement and pacing of the major and supporting elements of the presentation. Only through a coordinated presentation of related drawings can the three-dimensional form and character of a design be communicated. To explain and clarify aspects that are beyond the capability of the drawings, we resort to diagrams, graphic symbols, titles, and text.
In any design presentation, therefore, we should carefully plan the sequence and arrangement of all of the following elements: Slide and computerized presentations involve a sequence in time. In either case, the subject matter presented should progress in sequence from small-scale to large-scale graphic information, and from the general or contextual view to the specific. Whenever possible, orient plan drawings with north up or upward on the sheet. When each drawing successively builds on the preceding one, work from the bottom up or proceed from left to right.
Typical examples include a series of floor plans for a multistory building or a sequence of building elevations. The spacing and alignment of these individual drawings, as well as similarity of shape and treatment, are the key factors in determining whether we read these drawings as a set of related information or as individual figures.
Do not fill up white space unless absolutely necessary. Avoid using lines, however, when spacing or alignment can achieve the same purpose. Be aware, however, that using too many frames can establish ambiguous figure-ground relationships. A darker background for an elevation drawing, for example, can merge with a section drawing. The foreground for a perspective can become the field for a plan view of the building. These scales are especially useful because they remain proportional when a drawing is enlarged or reduced.
Graphic symbols rely on conventions to convey information. To be easily recognizable and readable, keep them simple and clean—free of extraneous detail and stylistic flourishes.
In enhancing the clarity and readability of a presentation, these devices also become important elements in the overall composition of a drawing or presentation. The impact of graphic symbols and lettering depends on their size, visual weight, and placement. Size The size of a graphic symbol should be in proportion to the scale of the drawing and readable from the anticipated viewing distance. Visual Weight The size and tonal value of a graphic symbol determines its visual weight.
If a large symbol or typeface is required for readability but a low value is mandatory for a balanced composition, then use an outline symbol or letter style. Placement Place graphic symbols as close as possible to the drawing to which they refer. Whenever possible, use spacing and alignment instead of boxes or frames to form visual sets of information.
You should therefore spend time on the appropriate selection and use of fonts rather than attempt to design new ones. Keep in mind that we may read different portions of a presentation—project overviews, diagrams, details, text, and so on—at different distances.
It has been the mechanically measuring the distance between the extremities of each letter. Leading also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. Beyond this size, the letters require a width beyond what a single pen or pencil stroke is capable of producing. The visual movement of slanted lettering can be distracting in a rectilinear drawing scheme. The most important characteristics of a lettering style are readability and consistency in both style and spacing.
Drawing Titles Arrange titles and graphic symbols into visual sets that identify and explain the contents of a drawing. By convention, we always place titles directly below a drawing. In this position, titles can help stabilize drawing fields, especially irregularly shaped ones. Use symmetrical layouts with symmetrical drawings and designs. In all other cases, it is usually easier to justify—align vertically—a drawing title with either the drawing itself or its field.
Text Organize text into visual sets of information and relate these sets directly to the portion of the drawing to which they refer. The line spacing of text should be more than one-half of the letter height used, but no more than the letter height itself. The space between blocks of text should be equal to or greater than the height of two lines of text.
Project Title The project title and associated information should relate to the overall sheet or board, not to any single drawing within the field of the panel. In planning the layout for a presentation, first identify the essential relationships you want to achieve.
Then use a storyboard or small-scale mockup of the presentation to explore alternative drawing arrangements, alignments, and spacing prior to beginning the final presentation drawings. This information should be in the same relative position on each panel. Doing so can create the impression of a figure on a background that itself has a background. Attention would be diverted from the figure, where it belongs, to the frame around it. The underlying sense of order created by the grid allows a great variety of information to be presented in a uniform manner.
However, because what we see on a monitor may not necessarily match the output from a printer or plotter, a trial layout should always be printed or plotted to ensure that the results are satisfactory. Presentation software enables us to plan and present slide shows of static graphic images as well as animations. Whereas we can roam and ponder a series of drawings displayed on a wall of a room, our viewing of a computer- based presentation is sequential and controlled by the presenter.
The tactile, kinesthetic nature of freehand drawing in direct response to sensory phenomena sharpens our awareness in the present and enables us to collect visual memories of the past.
During the design process itself, the freehand drawing of diagrams allows us to further explore these ideas and develop them into workable concepts.
D r aw in g f r o m Observatio n Drawing from observation sharpens our awareness of environmental settings, fosters our ability to see and understand architectural elements and relationships, and enhances our ability to build and retain visual memories. It is through drawing that we are able to perceive our environment in a fresh way and appreciate the uniqueness of a place. We draw from observation to notice, to understand, and to remember.
To Notice We often walk, bike, or drive by places daily without noticing them. Drawing from direct observation, on location, helps us become more aware of where we live, work, and play—the architectural landscape, the urban spaces the architecture creates, and the life these spaces nourish and sustain.
Moreover, beyond interpreting the optical image taken in by our visual system, the drawing process involves visual thinking that can stimulate the imagination and help us consider the two-dimensional patterns and three-dimensional relationships that comprise the built environment. Revisiting the resulting drawings at a later time can help us recall past memories and bring them forward to the present to be relished once again.
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The line, however, remains the single most essential drawing element, You may want to experiment with the feel and capabilities of other media, such one that is capable of a wide range of expression.
It as charcoal pencils and markers. Try to determine the limits of expression can define shape and form and even imply a sense of of which each is capable and how its characteristics affect the nature of depth and space. A line can portray hard as well as a drawing. For example, you should find that a fine-tipped pen or pencil soft materials; it can be light or heavy, limp or taut, encourages you to focus on minute details.
Because it takes innumerable fine bold or tentative. On the other hand, sketching with a broad- tipped pencil or marker fosters a broader view and the omission of details. Even when assigned a subject to draw, consider what aspect or quality of the subject attracts your attention.
Possible subjects for drawing from observation may vary in scale from fragments of buildings to landscapes. Since our perception is discriminating, we should also be selective in what we draw. How we frame and compose a view, and what we emphasize with our drawing technique, will tell others what attracted our attention and what visual qualities we focused on.
In this way, our drawings will naturally communicate our perceptions with an economy of means. Composing a perspective view of a scene involves positioning ourselves at an advantageous point in space and deciding how to frame what we see.
Composing a View Pay attention to the proportions of a chosen scene. Some scenes may suggest a vertical orientation for the composition while others are more horizontal in nature. The proportions of others may depend on what one chooses to emphasize in the scene.
All three should not have equal emphasis; one should dominate to heighten the pictorial space of the drawing. Visualizing Extents Before touching pen or pencil to paper, we should first visualize the horizontal and vertical extents of the view.
Often, especially when working top down, we may run out of room for the foreground that places our position within a scene. Most scenes, however, are asymmetrical, having a focus or point of interest that is off- center. To position these views, we can rely on the rule of thirds for guidance. Sizing to Fit The first line or shape that we draw on a page becomes a reference for all succeeding lines and shapes. Properly positioning and sizing this element can help ensure that the entire composition will fit the page.
Its primary purpose is to develop visual acuity and sensitivity to qualities of surface and form. The process of contour drawing suppresses the symbolic abstraction we normally use to represent things. Instead, it compels us to pay close attention, look carefully, and experience a subject with both our visual and tactile senses.
This fosters a feeling of precision that corresponds to the acuity of vision that contour drawing requires. While we normally perceive spatial voids as having no substance, they share the same edges as the objects they separate or envelop. The positive shapes of figures and the shapeless spaces of backgrounds share the same boundaries and combine to form an inseparable whole—a unity of opposites.
In drawing, also, negative shapes share the contour lines that define the edges of positive shapes. The format and composition of a drawing consists of positive and negative shapes that fit together like the interlocking pieces of a jigsaw puzzle.
In both seeing and drawing, we should raise the shapes of negative spaces to the same level of importance as the positive shapes of figures and see them as equal partners in the relationship. Since negative shapes do not always have the easily recognizable qualities of positive shapes, they can be seen only if we make the effort. Unlike contour drawing, in which we proceed from part to part, analytical drawing proceeds from the whole to the subordinate parts and finally the details.
Subordinating parts and details to the structure of the overall form prevents a piecemeal approach that can result in faulty proportional relationships and a lack of unity. Draw these lines in an exploratory manner to block out and establish a transparent volumetric framework for a form or composition. Do not erase any previously drawn lines. If necessary, restate a line— correcting basic shapes and checking the relative proportions between the parts.
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Get Citation Lewis, K. An annual anal Architectural graphics are key tools for conveying design through representation on paper or on screen, and this book is the ultimate guide to mastering the skill, then applying your talent to create more effective design communication.