health-harmful PM air pollution – particularly from diesel vehicles, diesel . raudone.info 6. PDF | Air pollution occurs when gases, dust particles, fumes (or smoke) or odour are introduced into the atmosphere in a way that makes it. Note on maps: All maps included in this publication are stylized and not to scale. They do not reflect a position by UNICEF on the legal status of.
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POLLUTION OF AIR AND WATER. Paheli and Boojho were very excited to hear the news that Taj. Mahal in Agra is now one of the seven wonders of the world. This paper estimates the global damage costs of air pollution over a year time to , focusing exclusively on air pollution of anthropogenic origin. Air Pollution: • what it means for your health. • the public information service. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs in partnership with the.
Increased levels of fine particles in the air are linked to health hazards such as heart disease,  altered lung function and lung cancer. Particulates are related to respiratory infections and can be particularly harmful to those already suffering from conditions like asthma.
Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs — harmful to the ozone layer ; emitted from products are currently banned from use. These are gases which are released from air conditioners, refrigerators, aerosol sprays, etc. On release into the air, CFCs rise to the stratosphere. Here they come in contact with other gases and damage the ozone layer.
This allows harmful ultraviolet rays to reach the earth's surface. This can lead to skin cancer, eye disease and can even cause damage to plants. Ammonia — emitted mainly by agricultural waste.
Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers.
Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. In the atmosphere, ammonia reacts with oxides of nitrogen and sulphur to form secondary particles. Secondary pollutants include: Particulates created from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in photochemical smog. Smog is a kind of air pollution.
Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and sulphur dioxide. Modern smog does not usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the atmosphere by ultraviolet light from the sun to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog.
Ozone O3 is a key constituent of the troposphere. It is also an important constituent of certain regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the Ozone layer.
Photochemical and chemical reactions involving it drive many of the chemical processes that occur in the atmosphere by day and by night.
At abnormally high concentrations brought about by human activities largely the combustion of fossil fuel , it is a pollutant and a constituent of smog. Minor air pollutants include: A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants.
Persistent organic pollutants POPs are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. Because of this, they have been observed to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, biomagnify in food chains, and to have potentially significant impacts on human health and the environment.
Sources There are various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for releasing pollutants into the atmosphere. These sources can be classified into two major categories. Anthropogenic man-made sources Controlled burning of a field outside of Statesboro , Georgia in preparation for spring planting.
Smoking of fish over an open fire in Ghana, These are mostly related to the burning of multiple types of fuel. Stationary sources include smoke stacks of fossil fuel power stations see for example environmental impact of the coal industry , manufacturing facilities factories and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices.
In developing and poor countries, traditional biomass burning is the major source of air pollutants; traditional biomass includes wood, crop waste and dung. Controlled burn practices in agriculture and forest management. Controlled or prescribed burning is a technique sometimes used in forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement.
Solutions to air pollution
Fire is a natural part of both forest and grassland ecology and controlled fire can be a tool for foresters. Controlled burning stimulates the germination of some desirable forest trees, thus renewing the forest.
Fumes from paint , hair spray , varnish , aerosol sprays and other solvents. These can be substantial; emissions from these sources was estimated to account for almost half of pollution from volatile organic compounds in the Los Angeles basin in the s. Methane is highly flammable and may form explosive mixtures with air. Methane is also an asphyxiant and may displace oxygen in an enclosed space. Asphyxia or suffocation may result if the oxygen concentration is reduced to below Fertilized farmland may be a major source of nitrogen oxides.
Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation Methane , emitted by the digestion of food by animals , for example cattle Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's crust. Radon is a colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas that is formed from the decay of radium.
It is considered to be a health hazard. Radon gas from natural sources can accumulate in buildings, especially in confined areas such as the basement and it is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking. Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires. These VOCs react with primary anthropogenic pollutants—specifically, NOx, SO2, and anthropogenic organic carbon compounds — to produce a seasonal haze of secondary pollutants. The VOC production from these species result in ozone levels up to eight times higher than the low-impact tree species.
These factors are usually expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant e.
Such factors facilitate estimation of emissions from various sources of air pollution. In most cases, these factors are simply averages of all available data of acceptable quality, and are generally assumed to be representative of long-term averages.
There are 12 compounds in the list of persistent organic pollutants. Dioxins and furans are two of them and intentionally created by combustion of organics, like open burning of plastics. View the conference homepage for more News release: Invisible killer Air pollution is an invisible killer that lurks all around us, preying on the young and old. Watch the video. View infographics.
Mortality from both ambient and household air pollution for pdf, kb Air pollution and NCDs: Air pollution and health From smog hanging over cities to smoke inside the home, air pollution poses a major threat to health and climate. More about air pollution. Link to the road map. Household air pollution Practical Action. Campaign website Infographics Videos.
News and events Expert Consultation: Risk communication and intervention to reduce exposure and to minimize the health effects of air pollution 12—14 February Expert Consultation on defining clean, transitional and polluting household energy solutions based on carbon monoxide emissions 15 January Maps and databases.
Such policies could involve outright bans such as requiring lead-free gasoline or asbestos-free vehicle brake linings or building materials ; guidance on desirable technologies for example, providing best-practice manuals ; or economic instruments that make using more polluting technologies more expensive than using less polluting technologies an example of the polluter pays principle.
Examples of technologies to reduce air pollution include the use of lead-free gasoline, which allows the use of catalytic converters on vehicles' exhaust systems. Such technologies significantly reduce the emissions of several air pollutants from vehicles box For trucks, buses, and an increasing number of smaller vehicles that use diesel fuel, improving the quality of the diesel itself by lowering its sulfur content is another way to reduce air pollution at the source.
More fuel-efficient vehicles, such as hybrid gas-electric vehicles, are another way forward. These vehicles can reduce gasoline consumption by about 50 percent during city driving. Policies that reduce "unnecessary" driving, or traffic demand management, can also reduce air pollution in urban areas. A system of congestion fees, in which drivers have to pay before entering central urban areas, was introduced in Singapore, Oslo, and London and has been effective in this respect.
Mexico City is one of the world's largest megacities, with nearly 20 million inhabitants. Local authorities have acknowledged its air quality problems since the s. The emissions from several million motor vehicles more Power plants and industrial plants that burn fossil fuels use a variety of filtering methods to reduce particles and scrubbing methods to reduce gases, although no effective method is currently available for the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.
High chimneys dilute pollutants, but the combined input of pollutants from a number of smokestacks can still lead to an overload of pollutants. Large combined emissions from industry and power stations in the eastern United States drift north with the winds and cause damage to Canadian ecosystems. In Europe, emissions from the industrial belt across Belgium, Germany, and Poland drift north to Sweden and have damaged many lakes there. The convergence of air pollutants from many sources and the associated health effects have also been documented in relation to the multiple fires in Indonesia's rain forest in Brauer and Hisham-Hashim ; the brown cloud over large areas of Asia, which is mainly related to coal burning; and a similar brown cloud over central Europe in the summer, which is caused primarily by vehicle emissions.
Managing air pollution interventions involves monitoring air quality, which may focus on exceedances of air quality guidelines in specific hotspots or on attempts to establish a specific population's average exposure to pollution. Sophisticated modeling in combination with monitoring has made it possible to start producing detailed estimates and maps of air pollution levels in key urban areas World Bank , thus providing a powerful tool for assessing current health impacts and estimated changes in the health impacts brought about by defined air pollution interventions.
Interventions to Reduce Water Pollution Water pollution control requires action at all levels of the hierarchical framework shown in figure The ideal method to abate diffuse chemical pollution of waterways is to minimize or avoid the use of chemicals for industrial, agricultural, and domestic purposes.
Adapting practices such as organic farming and integrated pest management could help protect waterways Scheierling Chemical contamination of waterways from industrial emissions could be reduced by cleaner production processes UNEP International and local experts initiated waste more Other interventions include proper treatment of hazardous waste and recycling of chemical containers and discarded products containing chemicals to reduce solid waste buildup and leaching of toxic chemicals into waterways.
A variety of technical solutions are available to filter out chemical waste from industrial processes or otherwise render them harmless. Changing the pH of wastewater or adding chemicals that flocculate the toxic chemicals so that they settle in sedimentation ponds are common methods.
The same principle can be used at the individual household level. One example is the use of iron chips to filter out arsenic from contaminated well water in Bangladeshi households Kinniburgh and Smedley Intervention Costs and Cost-Effectiveness This chapter cannot follow the detailed format for the economic analysis of different preventive interventions devised for the disease-specific chapters, because the exposures, health effects, and interventions are too varied and because of the lack of overarching examples of economic assessments.
Nevertheless, it does present a few examples of the types of analyses available. Comparison of Interventions A review of more than 1, reports on cost per life year saved in the United States for interventions in the environment and other fields table The net costs included only direct costs and savings.
Indirect costs, such as forgone earnings, were excluded.
[PDF] Effects of air pollution on children's health and development
Future costs and life years saved were discounted at 5 percent per year. Interventions with a cost per life year saved of less than or equal to zero cost less to implement than the value of the lives saved.
Each of three categories of interventions toxin control, fatal injury reduction, and medicine presented in table The cost-effective interventions in the air pollution area could be of value in developing countries as their industrial and transportation pollution situations become similar to the United States in the s.
The review by Tengs and others does not report the extent to which the various interventions were implemented in existing pollution control or public health programs, and many of the most cost-effective interventions are probably already in wide use.
The review did create a good deal of controversy in the United States, because professionals and nongovernmental organizations active in the environmental field accused the authors of overestimating the costs and underestimating the benefits of controls over chemicals see, for example, U. Congress Costs and Savings in Relation to Pollution Control A number of publications review and discuss the evidence on the costs and benefits of different pollution control interventions in industrial countries see, for example, U.
For developing countries, specific data on this topic are found primarily in the so-called gray literature: government reports, consultant reports, or reports by the international banks.
In each city, an emissions inventory was established, and rudimentary dispersion modeling was carried out. Various mitigation measures for reducing PM10 and health impacts were examined in terms of reductions in tons of PM10 emitted, cost of implementation, time frame for implementation, and health benefits and their associated cost savings.
Some of the abatement measures that have been implemented include introducing unleaded gasoline, tightening standards, introducing low-smoke lubricants for two-stroke engine vehicles, implementing inspections of vehicle exhaust emissions to address gross polluters, and reducing garbage burning.
Transportation policies and industrial development do not usually have air quality considerations as their primary objective, but the World Bank has developed a method to take these considerations into account. The costs of different air quality improvement policies are explored in relation to a baseline investment and the estimated health effects of air pollution. A comparison will indicate the cost-effectiveness of each policy.
The World Bank has worked out this "overlay" approach in some detail for the energy and forestry sectors in the analogous case of greenhouse gas reduction strategies World Bank Water Pollution The costs and benefits associated with interventions to remove chemical contaminants from water need to be assessed on a local or national basis to determine specific needs, available resources, environmental conditions including climate , and sustainability.
A developing country for which substantial economic analysis of interventions has been carried out is China Dasgupta, Wang, and Wheeler ; Zhang and others Another country with major concerns about chemicals arsenic in water is Bangladesh.
The arsenic mitigation programs have applied various arsenic removal technologies, but the costs and benefits are not well established. Alternative water supplies need to be considered when the costs of improving existing water sources outweigh the benefits. Harvesting rainwater may provide communities with safe drinking water, free of chemicals and micro-organisms, but contamination from roofs and storage tanks needs to be considered.
Rainwater collection is relatively inexpensive. Economic Benefits of Interventions One of the early examples of cost-benefit analysis for chemical pollution control is the Japan Environment Agency's study of three Japanese classical pollution diseases: Yokkaichi asthma, Minamata disease, and Itai-Itai disease table This analysis was intended to highlight the economic aspects of pollution control and to encourage governments in developing countries to consider both the costs and the benefits of industrial development.
Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd edition.
The calculations take into account the 20 or 30 years that have elapsed since the disease outbreaks occurred and annualize the costs and benefits over a year period. The pollution damage costs are the actual payments for victims' compensation and the cost of environmental remediation. The compensation costs are based on court cases or government decisions and can be seen as a valid representation of the economic value of the health damage in each case.
As table A few studies have analyzed cost-benefit aspects of air pollution control in specific cities. Those analyses are based mainly on modeling health impacts from exposure and relationships between doses and responses. Voorhees and others find that most studies that analyzed the situation in specific urban areas used health impact assessment to estimate impacts avoided by interventions.
Investigators have used different methods for valuing the economic benefits of health improvements, including market valuation, stated preference methods, and revealed preference methods.
The choice of assumptions and inputs substantially affected the resulting cost and benefit valuations. One of the few detailed studies of the costs and benefits of air pollution control in a specific urban area Voorhees and others used changing nitric oxide and NO2 emissions in Tokyo during —94 as a basis for the calculations.
The study did not use actual health improvement data but calculated likely health improvements from estimated reductions in NO2 levels and published dose-response curves. The health effects included respiratory morbidity as determined by hospital admissions and medical expenses , and working days lost for sick adults, and maternal working days lost in the case of a child's illness.
The results indicated an average cost-benefit ratio of 1 to 6, with a large range from a lower limit of 3 to 1 to an upper limit of 1 to Reduced mortality was by far the largest component of benefits, accounting for more than 80 percent of the total. Pandey and Nathwani applied cost-benefit analysis to a pollution control program in Canada. Their study proposed using the life quality index as a tool for quantifying the level of public expenditure beyond which the use of resources is not justified.
The benefit estimated in terms of avoided mortality was about 1, deaths per year.
In that study, the major monetized benefits resulted from reduced mortality costs. Aunan and others assessed the costs and benefits of implementing an energy saving and air pollution control program in Hungary. They based their monetary evaluation of benefits on local monitoring and population data and took exposure-response functions and valuation estimates from Canadian, U. They estimated the cost-benefit ratio at 1 to 3.
Many of the benefits resulted from reduced mortality in the elderly population and from reduced asthma morbidity costs. Misra examined the costs and benefits of water pollution abatement for a cluster of small-scale industries in Gujarat, India.
An International Journal of Environmental Pollution
Misra's assessment looked at command-and-control, market-based solutions and at effluent treatment as alternatives. In a cost-benefit analysis, Misra estimated the net present social benefits from water pollution abatement at the Nandesari Industrial Estate at Rs 0.
After making corrections for the prices of foreign exchange, unskilled labor, and investment, the figure rose to Rs 0.
It rose still further to about Rs 3. Implementation of Control Strategies: Lessons of Experience The foregoing examples demonstrate that interventions to protect health that use chemical pollution control can have an attractive cost-benefit ratio. The Japan Environment Agency estimates the national economic impact of pollution control legislation and associated interventions. During the s and early s, when the government made many of the major decisions about intensified pollution control interventions, Japan's gross domestic product GDP per capita was growing at an annual rate of about 10 percent, similar to that of the rapidly industrializing countries in the early 21st century.
The Japan Environment Agency concluded that the stricter environmental protection legislation and associated major investment in pollution control had little effect on the overall economy, but that the resulting health benefits are likely cumulative. Air The broadest analysis of the implementation of control strategies for air pollution was conducted by the U.
Environmental Protection Agency in the late s Krupnick and Morgenstern The analysis developed a hypothetical scenario for to , assuming that the real costs for pollution control during this period could be compared with the benefits of reduced mortality and morbidity and avoided damage to agricultural crops brought about by the reduction of major air pollutant levels across the country during this period. The study estimated reduced mortality from dose-response relationships for the major air pollutants, assigning the cost of each death at the value of statistical life and the cost of morbidity in relation to estimated health service utilization.
The study used a variety of costing methods to reach the range of likely present values presented in table It assumed that the reduction of air pollution resulted from the implementation of the federal Clean Air Act of and associated state-level regulations and air pollution limits.
The analysis showed a dramatically high cost-benefit ratio and inspired debate about the methodologies used and the results. One major criticism was of the use of the value of statistical life for each death potentially avoided by the reduced air pollution.
The recalculated figure is still well above the fifth percentile estimate of benefits and does not undermine the positive cost-benefit ratio reported.
Thus, if a developing country were to implement an appropriate control strategy for urban air pollution, it might derive significant economic benefits over the subsequent decades.
The country's level of economic development, local costs, and local benefit valuations will be important for any cost-benefit assessment.
WHO's air quality guidelines are among the documents that provide advice on analytical approaches. Water We were unable to find an analysis for water similar to the broad analysis presented for air, but the examples of water pollution with mercury, cadmium, and arsenic described earlier indicate the economic benefits that can be reaped from effective interventions against chemical water pollution.
Since the pollution disease outbreaks of mercury and cadmium poisoning in Japan, serious mercury pollution situations have been identified in Brazil, China, and the Philippines, and serious cadmium pollution has occurred in Cambodia, China, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Thailand.
Arsenic in groundwater is an ongoing, serious problem in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal and a less serious problem in a number of other countries.
WHO has analyzed control strategies for biological water pollution and water and sanitation improvements in relation to the Millennium Development Goals Hutton and Haller Careful analysis of the same type is required for populations particularly vulnerable to chemical water pollution to assess whether control of chemical pollution can also yield significant benefits.Harvesting rainwater may provide communities with safe drinking water, free of chemicals and micro-organisms, but contamination from roofs and storage tanks needs to be considered.
Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants.
Researchers at the Harvard University and SUNY Upstate Medical University and Syracuse University measured the cognitive performance of 24 participants in three different controlled laboratory atmospheres that simulated those found in "conventional" and "green" buildings, as well as green buildings with enhanced ventilation. The health sector needs to be involved in assessing urban planning, the location of industries, and the development of transportation systems and needs to encourage those designing public transportation and housing to ensure that new sources of air pollution are not being built into cities.
The emissions from several million motor vehicles more
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