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Each problem within Connect Chemistry car- ries the text End-of-Chapter Problems enable the student to practice Students can order supplemental study materials by con-. In late s, several organizations expanded their activities with the advances in e-commerce to increase their share in the market and offer new opportunities to their existing customers.

Obviously, the methods followed while identifying the user behaviour and generating consumer profiles for e-commerce are not as relatively simple as understanding the intentions in traditional face to face shopping. Full-text available. Nuri Kahraman Mehmet Alper Tunga. The significant improvements in communication technologies revealed innovative online services.

Time and location barriers have been eliminated and customer satisfaction has gained importance. The most remarkable evolution is observed in electronic commerce. Electronic commerce is a widely accepted industry which provides an effective medium for both retailers and customers, enabling to perform online transactions through websites. The analysis of consumer preferences has become a key aspect in this challenging environment.

In this study, the behaviours of Turkish consumers were identified to provide an insight to the practitioners. We examined the moderator effect of consumers' socio-demographic characteristics on online downloading behaviours. A questionnaire was designed by using the existing literature. A data set of valid records were collected by a questionnaire and analysed by applying association rule mining method. Several interesting rules representing the preferences of online consumers were determined.

The results show that the behaviours of Turkish online consumers are related with their demographic characteristics. Conference Paper. May Meta Andriani.

Services Marketing 6th Edition Mcgraw Hill

Previous study found supporting evidence of several factors affecting download intention in retail environment. However, there is still few that focus on the private label brand PLB despite of the importance of the products for the convinience store business.

This study aims to find the direct effects of store image and service quality on brand image and download intention for a private label brand PLB in the context of convinience store. In addition, it also aims to confirm the factors that directly influence download intention of consumers. Two hundred and seven respondents were investigated using nonprobability sampling technique purposive sampling.

The analyses emploted Structural Equation Modelling techniques and results indicate that store the image and private label brand image has a direct positive impact on download intention. The findings also confirmed that service quality has a direct positive effect on private label brand PLB image.

Surprisingly, service quality has no direct influence on download intention, but have indirect influence through private label brand PLB image. Jan Apr Populasi nasabah bank syariah di Surabaya tidak dapat diketahui secara pasti, dikarenakan sifatnya yang fluktuatif dan tidak adanya data publik yang dikeluarkan berkenaan dengan hal ini, peneliti memutuskan untuk mengambil sampel populasi menggunakan metode aksidental.

Dipadukan dengan metode bootstraping pada program WarpPLS 5. Temuan dari penelitian ini adalah Variabel servicescape dan kualitas komunikasi karyawan berpengaruh signifikan, baik terhadap kepuasan nasabah maupun relationsip intention. Sedangkan variabel kepercayaan nasabah berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap kepuasan nasabah dan relationship intention. Dan variabel kepuasan nasabah berpengaruh terhadap variabel relationship intention. Jun This paper empirically evaluates two case studies taken each from a B2B and B2C service firms operating in the UK using time series data to compare the relative significance of dependability and quality in driving customer satisfaction in information service settings.

The research also explores the interrelationship between these two operations performance indicators and their further effect on customer satisfaction. B2C cases points towards the direction of traditional 'trade-off theory' whereas B2B cases provide support for 'sand-cone model theory.

The difference in the findings of the B2C and B2B cases provides an interesting strategic insight to academic and business practitioners that how the strategic priority among the operation performance varies in different type of firms.

The outcome of this research has an important managerial implication suggesting that in B2B firms once information service firms attains a significant level of improvements in quality, the operations strategy should be focused on improving the dependability of the services.

However, in B2C firms the operational strategy should be oriented more towards improving dependability of the services to make their customer feel more satisfied and gain competitive advantage over their rivals. PT Safari Dharma Sakti is a company engaged in transportation services. Vehicles that this company has has an international standard compared to other transportation service companies. But this company only moves in local tourists only, therefore Team 10 offers to be a consultant and help it to Go International to be known not only local tourists but also from abroad.

Team 10 gets a lot of information from interviews ranging from price to promotion what has been used. Our team performs with the PIC of the company that is Mr. Samuel and discuss many things.

Finally our group gave suggestions to organize tours provided by the company's own team. And the company team was very agree, interested, and expect a lot of this "Endless Summer Tour" plan.

What is the role of CRM systems in delivering customized services and building loyalty? Customer loyalty extends beyond behavior and includes preference, liking, and future intentions. Ask yourself: What service companies are you loyal to?

And in what industries are they? The active management of the customer base and customer loyalty is also referred to as customer asset management. It describes disloyal people who sell out their own side and go over to the enemy. Reichheld and Sasser popularized the term zero defections, which they describe as keeping every customer the company can serve profitably.

How much is a loyal customer worth in terms of profits? In a classic study, Reichheld and Sasser analyzed the profit per customer in various service businesses, as catego- rized by the number of years that a customer had been with the firm.

Annual profits per customer, which have been indexed over a five-year period for easier comparison, are summarized in Figure A study of Internet sales showed similar loyalty effects; typically, it took more than a year to recoup acquisition costs, but profits increased as customers stayed longer with the firm. In order of magnitude at the end of seven years, these factors are: Profit derived from increased downloads or, in a credit card or banking environ- ment, higher account balances.

Over time, business customers often grow larger and so need to download in greater quantities. Individuals may also download more as their families grow or as they become more affluent. Both types of customers may be willing to consolidate their downloads with a single supplier who provides high-quality service.

Based on reanalysis of data from Frederick R. Reichheld and W. Earl Sasser, Jr. Profit from reduced operating costs. As customers become more experienced, they make fewer demands on the supplier for instance, they have less need for information and assistance.

They may also make fewer mistakes when involved in operational processes, thus contributing to greater productivity. Profit from referrals of other customers. Positive word-of-mouth recommenda- tions are like free selling and advertising, saving the firm from having to invest as much money in these activities.

Profit from price premium. New customers often benefit from introductory pro- motional discounts, whereas long-term customers are more likely to pay regular prices, and when they are highly satisfied they are even willing to pay a price premium. Figure Earl Sasser Jr. Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business School. Reichheld argues that the economic benefits of customer loyalty noted above often explain why one firm is more profitable than a competitor.

Furthermore, the up-front costs of attracting these downloaders can be amortized over many years. Sometimes it is more important to invest in a good retail location that will attract walk-in traffic. On the revenue side, loyal customers may not necessarily spend more than one-time downloaders, and in some instances they may even expect price discounts.

Finally, revenue does not necessarily increase with time for all types of customers. However, in many business-to-business B2B contexts, large customers have significant bargaining power and therefore will nearly always try to negotiate lower prices when contracts come up for renewal, which forces suppliers to share the cost savings resulting from doing business with a large, loyal customer.

DHL has found that although each of its major accounts generates significant business, it yields below-average margins. What would be the effect on sales and profits if they exhibited the ideal behavior profile of 1 downloading all services offered by the firm, 2 using these to the exclusion of any downloads from competitors, and 3 paying full price?

What effect would it have if they remained customers for life? As we showed earlier, the profitability of a customer often increases over time. You may want to try tified. The first priority is to segment your customer varying these assumptions to see how it affects the final base by the length of its relationship with your firm. Value of Referrals Acquisition Revenues Less Costs Computing the value of referrals requires a variety of If individual account records are kept, the initial applica- assumptions.

To get started, you may need to conduct tion fee paid and initial download if relevant should be surveys to determine 1 what percentage of new cus- found in these records.

Costs, by contrast, may have to be tomers claim that they were influenced by a recommen- based on average data. From these two items, estimates can be made ing, etc.

Additional research may period. The cost of credit checks—where relevant—must be divided by the num- Net Present Value ber of new customers, not the total number of applicants, Calculating net present value NPV from a future because some applicants will probably fail this hurdle.

This could reflect estimates of most organizations.

Sales and marketing pdf

It also requires assessment of how long the average relationship lasts. The NPV of a Annual Revenues and Costs customer, then, is the sum of the anticipated annual If annual sales, account fees, and service fees are doc- profit on each customer for the projected relationship umented on an individual-account basis, account lifetime, suitably discounted each year into the future.

Relationship Marketing The term relationship marketing has been widely used, but until recently it was only loosely defined. Research by Nicole Coviello, Rod Brodie, and Hugh Munro suggest that there are, in fact, four distinct types of marketing: This is true for many services, ranging from passenger transport to food service or visits to a movie theater, in which each download and use is a separate event.

Database Marketing In database marketing the focus is still on the market transaction, but now it includes information exchange. Marketers rely on information technology, usually in the form of a database, to form a relationship with targeted customers and retain their patron- age over time.

However, the nature of these relationships is often not a close one, with communication being driven and managed by the seller.

Account Options

Utility services such as electric- ity, gas, and cable TV are good examples. Although the service itself remains important, value is added by people and social processes. Interactions may include negotiations and sharing of insights in both directions. This type of relationship exists in many local service markets, ranging from community banks to dentistry, in which downloader and seller know and trust each other.

It is also commonly found in many B2B services. Both the firm and the customer are prepared to invest resources to develop a mutually beneficial relationship.

This investment may include time spent sharing and recording information. As service companies grow larger and make increasing use of technologies such as interactive web sites and self-service technology, maintaining meaningful relationships with customers becomes a significant marketing challenge. Firms with large customer bases find it increasingly difficult to build and maintain meaningful relationships through call centers, web sites and other mass delivery channels Figure In a B2B context, mar- keters work to develop networks of relationships with customers, distributors, sup- pliers, the media, consultants, trade associations, government agencies, competitors, and even the customers of their customers.

The four types of marketing described above are not necessarily mutually exclu- sive. A firm may have transactions with some customers who have neither the desire nor the need to make future downloads, while working hard to move others up the loyalty ladder. He advocates total relationship marketing, describing it as. It is directed to long-term, win—win relationships with individual customers, and value is jointly cre- ated between the parties involved.

Services Marketing 6th Edition Mcgraw Hill

This is easier when customers receive service on a continuing basis. However, even where the transactions are themselves discrete, there may still be an opportunity to create an ongoing relationship, as we will discuss later in the chapter in the context of loy- alty reward programs.

The nature of the current relationship can be analyzed by asking, first: Or is there no defined rela- tionship? Second, is the service delivered on a continuous basis, as in insurance, broadcasting, and police protection? Or is each transaction recorded and charged separately? Table Services involving discrete transactions can be transformed into membership relationships either by selling the service in bulk for instance, a theater series subscription or a commuter ticket on public transport or by offering extra benefits to customers who choose to register with the firm loyalty programs for hotels, airlines, and car rental firms fall into this category.

The advantage to the service organization of having membership relationships is that it knows who its current customers are and, usu- ally, what use they make of the services offered.

This can be valuable information for segmentation purposes if good records are kept and the data are readily accessible for analysis. Knowing the identities and addresses of current customers enables the organization to make effective use of direct mail including e-mail , telephone sell- ing, and personal sales calls—all highly targeted methods of marketing communica- tion.

In turn, members can be given access to special numbers or even designated account managers to facilitate their communications with the firm. Just try and think of all the service firms you yourself are loyal to. Most people cannot think of more than perhaps a handful of firms they truly like i.

This shows that although firms put enormous amounts of money and effort into loyalty initiatives, they often are not successful in building true customer loyalty.


We use the wheel of loyalty shown in Figure It comprises three sequential strategies. First, the firm needs a solid foundation for creating customer loyalty, which includes having the right portfolio of customer segments, attracting the right cus- tomers, tiering the service, and delivering high levels of satisfaction. Second, to truly build loyalty, a firm needs to develop close bonds with its cus- tomers, which either deepen the relation ship through cross-selling and bundling, or add value to the customer through loyalty rewards and higher-level bonds.

We discuss each of the components of the wheel of loyalty in the following sections. Reduce 1. Acquire only customers measures who fit the core value proposition.

Enabled — Reactive retention measures through: In this section, we emphasize the importance of focusing on desirable customers, and then taking pains to build their loyalty through well-conceived relationship marketing strategies, including delivery of quality service.

Customers often differ widely in terms of needs. They also differ in terms of the value that they can contribute to a company. Companies need to be selective about the segments they target if they want to build successful customer relationships.

In this section, we emphasize the impor- tance of choosing to serve a portfolio of several carefully chosen target segments and taking pains to build and maintain their loyalty. They also need to consider how well their service personnel can meet the expecta- tions of specific types of customers, in terms of both personal style and technical competence. The result of carefully targeting customers by matching the company capabilities and strengths with customer needs should be a superior service offering in the eyes of those customers who value what the firm has to offer.

Generally speaking, heavy users who download more frequently and in larger volumes are more profitable than occa- sional users. Roger Hallowell makes this point nicely in a discussion of banking: Any bank would be wise to target and serve only those customers whose needs it can meet better than its competitors in a profitable manner.

Service customers who download strictly based on lowest price a minority in most mar- kets are not good target customers for relationship marketing in the first place. They are deal-prone, and continuously seek the lowest price on offer. Loyalty leaders are picky about acquiring only the right customers, which are those for whom their firms have been designed to deliver truly special value. Acquiring the right customers can bring in long-term revenues, continued growth from referrals, and enhanced satisfaction from employees whose daily jobs are improved when they can deal with appreciative customers.

Attracting the wrong customers typically results in costly churn, a diminished company reputation, and disillusioned employees.

Ironically, it is often the firms that are highly focused and selective in their acquisition rather than those that focus on unbridled acquisition that are growing fast over long periods. Depending on the service business model, the right customers may come from a large group of people that no other supplier is doing a good job of serving. Like investments, some types of customers may be more profitable than others in the short term, but others may have greater potential for long-term growth.

Its share of new sales, which [short-term investors] to look elsewhere for their was around 25 percent, reflected its share of assets or investment opportunities. However, it had a far lower share of This care and attention to acquiring the right cus- redemptions, which gave it a market share of net cash tomers became legendary.

For example, Vanguard flows of 55 percent new sales minus redemptions , and turned away an institutional investor who wanted to made it the fastest-growing mutual fund in its industry. The secret was its careful acquisitions, and its few weeks, creating extra costs for existing customers.

For example, Vanguard its index funds hold the market they are designed to did not allow telephone transfers for index funds, track , not having a sales force, and spending only a redemption fees were added to some funds, and the fraction of what its competitors did on advertising.

These product and pricing policies in effect John Bogle attributes the high customer loyalty turned away heavy traders, but made the fund Vanguard has achieved to a great deal of focus on cus- unequivocally attractive for the long-term investor. Low redemption rates meant that the administrative costs of selling new shares.

In essence, firm was attracting the right kind of loyal, long-term this fee subsidizes long-term investors and penalizes investors. The inherent stability of its loyal customer short-term investors. He scrutinized individual investors, which carried an expense fee one-third less redemptions with a fine-tooth comb to see who let the than that of ordinary shares 0. When an institu- instead of 0. Adapted from Frederick F. Reichheld, Loyalty Rules! Harvard Business School Press, , pp.

A wise mar- keter seeks a mix of segments in order to reduce the risks associated with volatility. Volume alone is no measure of excellence, sustainability, or profitability.

In professional services, such as consulting firms or legal partnerships, the mix of business attracted may play an important role in both defining the firm and providing a suit- able mix of assignments for staff members at different levels in the organization. Customer retention involves developing long-term, cost-effective links with customers for the mutual benefit of both parties, but these efforts need not necessarily target all customers with the same level of intensity.

Recent research has confirmed that most firms have different tiers of customers in terms of profitability, and these tiers often have quite different service expectations and needs. In the latter instance, customer tiers can be developed around different levels of profit contribu- tion, needs including sensitivities to variables such as price, comfort, and speed , and identifiable personal profiles such as demographics.

Zeithaml, Rust, and Lemon illustrate this principle through a four-level pyramid Figure Typically, this segment is less price-sensitive but expects highest service levels, and it is likely to be willing to invest in and try new services. The gold tier includes a larger percentage of customers than the platinum tier, but individual customers contribute less profit than platinum customers.

They tend to be slightly more price-sensitive and less committed to the firm. These customers provide the bulk of the customer base. Their numbers give the firm economies of scale. Hence, they are often important so that a firm can build and maintain a certain capacity level and infrastructure, which is often needed to serve gold and platinum customers well.

However, iron customers in themselves are often only marginally profitable. Their level of business is not sufficient to warrant special treatment.

Platinum Gold Which segment costs us in time and effort and money but does not provide the Iron returns we want? What segment is difficult to do business with? Lead Poor-Relationship Customers Source: Reprinted from the California Management Review. By permission of The Regents. The agency and commissioned work on a project basis. Selling defined platinum clients as large accounts that were not costs were high, as these firms tended to send out only willing to plan a certain amount of research work requests for proposals RFPs to a number of firms for during the year, but were also able to commit to the tim- all their projects.

They sought the lowest price, and ing, scope, and nature of their projects, which made often did not allow sufficient time for the research firm capacity management and project planning much easier to perform a good-quality job. Sales costs project bidding. Platinum accounts were also more will- were high as the client typically invited several firms ing to try new services, and to download a wider range of ser- to quote.

Furthermore, because these firms were inex- vices from their preferred provider. Lead accounts also tended to be high-mainte- Gold accounts had a similar profile to platinum nance because they did not understand research work clients, except that they were more price-sensitive, and well; they often changed project parameters, scope, were more inclined to spread their budgets across sev- and deliverables midstream and then expected the eral firms.

Although these accounts had been clients for research agency to absorb the cost of any rework, thus many years, they were not willing to commit their further reducing the profitability of the engagement. Adapted from Valarie A. Zeithaml, Roland T. Rust, and Katharine N. Creating quality and priority in capacity allocation. The precise characteristics of customer tiers vary, of course, from one type of business to another and even from one firm to another.

Service Perspective Customer tiers are typically based on profitability and service needs.

Rather than providing the same level of service to all customers, each segment receives a service level that is customized based on its requirements and value to the firm. For exam- ple, the platinum tier is provided some exclusive benefits that are not available to other segments. The benefit levels for platinum and gold customers are often designed with retention in mind, because these customers are the ones competitors would like to entice to switch.

Marketing efforts can be used to encourage an increased volume of downloads, upgrading the type of service used, or cross-selling additional services to any of the four tiers.

However, these efforts have different thrusts for the different tiers, as their needs, usage behaviors, and spending patterns are usually very different. Among segments for which the firm already has a high share-of-wallet, the focus should be on nurturing, defending, and retaining these customers, possibly by use of loyalty programs.

Migration can be achieved via a combination of strate- gies, including base fees and price increases. Imposing a minimum fee that is waived when a certain level of revenue is generated may encourage customers who use sev- eral suppliers to consolidate their transactions with a single provider. Customer behavior can be shaped in ways that reduces the cost of serving them; for instance, transaction charges for electronic channels may be priced lower than for people- intensive channels.

Another option is to create an attractively priced, low-cost plat- form. In the cellular telephone industry, for example, low-use mobile users are directed to prepaid packages that do not require the firm to send out bills and collect payments, which also eliminates the risk of bad debts on such accounts. Terminating customers comes as a logical consequence of the realization that not all existing customer relationships are worth keeping.

Some relationships may no longer be profitable for the firm, because they may cost more to maintain than the revenues they generate.

Just as investors need to dispose of poor investments and banks may have to write off bad loans, each service firm needs to evaluate its customer portfolio regularly and consider terminating unsuccessful relationships.

Legal and ethical con- siderations, of course, will determine whether it is proper to take such action. ING Direct is the fast-food model of consumer banking: It is about as no-frills as it gets. It has only a handful of basic products, and it lures low-mainte- nance customers with high interest rates its Orange savings account paid 3.

In some instances, termination may be less confrontational. Banks wishing to divest themselves of certain types of accounts that no longer fit with cor- porate priorities have been known to sell them to other banks one example is credit card holders who receive a letter in the mail telling them that their account has been transferred to another card issuer.

Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality Are Prerequisites for Loyalty The foundation for true loyalty lies in customer satisfaction, for which service qual- ity is a key input. Highly satisfied or even delighted customers are more likely to become loyal apostles of a firm,27 consolidate their downloading with one suppler, and spread positive word of mouth.

Dissatisfaction, in contrast, drives customers away and is a key factor in switching behavior. Recent research has even demonstrated that increases in customer satisfaction lead to increases in stock prices—see Research Insights The satisfaction—loyalty relationship can be divided into three main zones: Defection, indifference, and affection Figure The zone of defection occurs at low satisfaction levels.

Customers will switch unless switching costs are high or there are no viable or convenient alternatives.

Here, customers are willing to switch if they find a better alternative. Finally, the zone of affection is located at very high satisfaction levels, where customers may have such high attitudinal loyalty that they do not look for alternative service providers. This was the intriguing with research in marketing, which holds that satisfied research question that Claes Fornell and his colleagues customers improve the level and the stability of cash wanted to answer.

More specifically, they examined flow. Fornell and his colleagues discovered in customer satisfaction in future ACSI releases—your that the ACSI was significantly related to the stock finance friends will tell you that efficient markets prices of the individual firms. However, simply pub- learn fast!

You will know this has happened when lishing the latest data on the ACSI did not immedi- you see stock prices move as a response to ACSI ately move share prices, as efficient market theory releases. You can learn more about the ACSI at would have predicted. Rather, share prices seemed to www.

Morgeson III, and M. This result repre- Jones and W. In this section, we first review the common loyalty drivers for customers, and then explore how firms can build or enhance such loyalty drivers. Relationships create value for individual consumers through such factors as inspir- ing greater confidence, offering social benefits, and providing special treatment see Research Insights In a B2B service context, relationships depend largely on the quality of the interactions between individuals at each of the partnering firms, and service firms needs to take care to communicate the relevant benefits to the right people in the client organization, because downloading decisions are often made jointly.Adapted from Valarie A.

Melissa Pellerano Editorial Assistant: Loyalty Wars Lead accounts also tended to be high-mainte- Gold accounts had a similar profile to platinum nance because they did not understand research work clients, except that they were more price-sensitive, and well; they often changed project parameters, scope, were more inclined to spread their budgets across sev- and deliverables midstream and then expected the eral firms.

See, for example, Iselin Skogland and Judy Siguaw,

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