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LAB MANUAL. LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB. STATE INSTITUTE OF TECHNICAL TEACHERS TRAINING AND RESEARCH. Select the values of R & C in such away that the condition T >> τ is satisfied. 2. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 3. Apply 10V p-p Square wave at 1KHz from. 4. pulse and digital circuits lab manual PDF Op-Amps and Linear. Integrated Circuits: Lab. Manual. “Ramkant. Multiplexer and Demultiplexer PDF. XII.

DTS V 1 3. Apparatus Required: CRO 1 4. Model Graph Procedure 1. Thus the sample and hold circuit using Op-amp was constructed and tested.

Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. Note down the output voltage at CRO 5. Probes — 1 Design: Diode IN 2 7. Monostable Multivibrators: No 4 Astable and Monostable Multivibrators using op-amp Aim To design Astable and monostable Multivibrators using op-amp and plot its waveforms.

Astable Multivibrators: Make the connections as shown in circuit diagram. Observe the pulse waveform at pin no. Plot the waveform on the graph. Model graph: A trigger pulse is given through differentiator circuit through pin no. Compare with the designed value. Plot the Waveform on the graph.

Observe the waveform at the output and across the capacitor. Check for the correct polarity of the supply voltage to op-amp and switch on power supply to the circuit. Keep the CRO channel switch in ground and adjust the horizontal line on the x axis so that it coincides with the central line. Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram 2. Select the suitable voltage sensitivity and time base on the CRO. Measure the frequency of oscillation and the amplitude.

What is other name for Astable Multivibrators?


How an Op-amp is used to generate square wave? What are the changes to be done in a symmetric square wave generator to generate asymmetric square wave? Probe 2 8. To design and test an Astable and Monostable Multivibrators using timer with duty cycles ratio. Diode In 1 5. CRO 1 6. Then the cycle repeats. Resistors 3. Now capacitor C starts discharging through RB and transistor Q1. Capacitors 0.

This definition is applicable to Astable Multivibrators only. Switch on the power supply to CRO and the circuit. Connect the CRO probes to pin 3 and 2 to display the output signal and the voltage across the timing capacitor.

Switch off the power supply. The circuit is useful for generating single output pulse at adjustable time duration in response to a triggering signal. Draw to scale on a graph sheet. The pulse width of the trigger input must be smaller than the expected pulse width of the output. The width of the output pulse depends only on external components.

Switch on the power supply. The capacitor C now starts charging up towards V cc through RA. However upon application of a negative trigger pulse to pin2. Measure the voltage levels at which the capacitor starts charging and discharging.

Rig-up the circuit of Astable Multivibrators as shown in fig with the designed value of components. The output remains low until a trigger is again applied. The stable state is the output low and quasi stable state is the output high. Set suitable voltage sensitively and time-base on the CRO.

Observe the waveforms on the CRO and draw to scale on a graph sheet. Monostable Multivibrators using Monostable Multivibrators has one stable state and other is a quasi stable state.

Observe the output waveform. The width of the output pulse is given by. Define duty cycle ratio. What are the features of timer? What are the applications of monostable Multivibrators? What should be the amplitude of trigger pulse? Thus the Astable Multivibrators and Monostable Multivibrators using timer is designed and tested. What are the applications of timer? What is meant by quasi stable state? Connect the trigger input to pin 2 of timer form the function generator. Rig-up the circuit of monostable Multivibrators as shown in fig with the designed value of components.

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Since the resistive ladder is a linear network. R and 2R. In this output voltage is a weighted sum of digital inputs.

Voltage Source V 1 Theory: Dual Tracking Supply V 1 5. The typical values of R are from 2. DPDT switch 1 4. Hence it is suitable for integrated circuit fabrication.

Components Required: The output voltage obtained is compared with the given output voltage. The power supply is switched on. Reference voltage is set as 10V. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. In a binary ladder network of a DAC. Name any two types of ADC. What is the range value for resistor R in DAC? What is the resistance value of the other set? Binary values are applied according to the binary input values. Mention any two specifications of a DAC. The output voltage is noted down.

The value of high cut off frequency fH is chosen. The range of frequency from 0 to higher cut off frequency fH is called pass band and the range of frequencies beyond fH is called stop band. Capacitor O. Probe 2 7. By knowing the values of fH and C. Bread Board 1 Theory: The following steps are used for the design of active LPF. CRO 1 5. Second Order LPF: A high pass filter allows only frequencies above a certain bread point to pass through and at terminates the low frequency components.

The range of frequencies beyond its lower cut off frequency fL is called stop band.

Thus the high pass filter can be obtained by interchanging R and C in the circuit of low pass configuration. The input and output signals of the filter channels 1 and 2 of the CRO are connected.

Input signal is connected to the circuit from the signal generator. The correct polarity is checked. Suitable voltage sensitivity and time-base on CRO is selected. HPF 1. The above steps are repeated for second order filter.

The band between fL and fH is called stop band.

To design Voltage Follower, Inverting and Non inverting, Differentiator, Integrator,

It has two pass bands in the range of frequencies between 0 to fL and beyond fH. It has two stop bands in range of frequencies between 0 to fL and beyond fH. Op-amp IC 3 2. Hence its bandwidth is fL-fH. The input and output signals are connected to the filter. The steps are repeated. The suitable voltage is selected. The input signal is connected to the circuit from the signal generator.

The voltages Vden and Vnum represent the two input voltages.

The input voltage Vi must be negative otherwise the Op-amp saturates. Resistor 4. Multiplier IC AD 1 2. Vden form one input of the multiplier and output of Op-amp VOA forms the second input.

Square Rooter: Op-amp IC 1 3. The division is achieved by connecting the multiplier in the feedback loop of an Op-amp. This circuit produces the ratio of two input signals. CRO 1 Theory: Squarer and square rooter using the multiplier IC. Voltage Divider: The output Vom of the multiplier is connected back to the inverting input terminal of Op-amp in the feedback loop. Bread Board 1 6. Voltage Squarer: Input is connected to the input terminals 3.

Supply is connected to the corresponding terminals. Output is noted down. Power supply is connected to the corresponding terminals. Input is applied to the input terminals. Switch on the power supply and CRO. Redesign the circuit to generate the sine wave of frequency 2KHz. State the two conditions for oscillations. Note down the output voltage at CRO. Compare the output with the theoretical value of oscillation. Connect the components as shown in the circuit 5.

Plot the output waveform on the graph.

Define an oscillator? What is frequency stability? Normally between fa and fb the circuit acts as an integrator. The input signal will be integrated properly if the Time period T of the signal is larger than or equal to Rf Cf. That is, T Rf Cf. In the circuit of figure 2. Determine the output voltage. Differentiator S. What is integrator? Write the disadvantages of ideal integrator? What is differentiator? What will happen if R1 not present? Write the application of differentiator?

Why compensation resistance is needed in differentiator.? Why integrators are preferred over differentiators in analog comparators? To design and test the operation of Differential amplifier and Schmitt trigger. A Circuit that amplifies the difference between two signals is called a differential amplifier.

For differential amplifier, though the circuit is not symmetric, but because of the mismatch, the gain at the output with respect to positive terminal is slightly different in magnitude to that of negative terminal.

Design the Differentiator amplifier having gain of Figure 3. No Name of the Apparatus 1. Function Generator 2. CRO 3. Dual RPS 4. Op-Amp 5. Bread Board 6. Resistors 7. Note down the Output Voltage 4.

Vary the input Voltages and note down the output voltages. The Schmitt trigger is a comparator with positive feedback. It converts slowly varying waveforms into square wave. The input voltage is applied to the inverting terminal and the feedback circuit is connected to the non-inverting terminal. The input voltage triggers the output every time it exceeds certain voltage levels. When Vi is just greater than VUT, the output regenerative switches to - Vsat and remains at this level.

Determine the threshold voltages. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram. Set the input voltage as 1Vpp. Measure the amplitude of the output signal. Note down the upper and lower threshold voltages by superimposing the square wave on the input sine wave. Plot the input and output waveforms. Schmitt Triger. The Wien bridge oscillator is the most commonly used audio frequency oscillator because of its simplicity and stability.

Figure shows the Wien bridge oscillator in which Wien bridge circuit is connected between the amplifiers input terminals and the output terminal. The bridge has a series RC network in one arm and a parallel RC network in the adjoining arm. In the remaining two arms of the bridge, resistors R1 and Rf are connected. The phase angle criterion for oscillation is that the total phase shift around the circuit must be This condition occurs only when the bridge is balanced. Figure 4. Capacitors 8. Connecting wires and probes.

Quantity 2 1 1 1 1 As per design As per design As required. Construct the circuit with the values obtained in the design. Observe the output wave form on an Oscilloscope. Measure the frequency of oscillator and voltage amplitude. Model Graph: A phase-shift oscillator is a linear electronic oscillator circuit that produces a sine wave output. It consists of an inverting amplifie amplifier element such as a transistor or op amp with its output fed back to its input through a phase phase-shift network consisting of resistors and capacitors.

The feedback network 'shifts' the phase of the amplifier output by degrees at the oscillation frequency to give positive feedback feedback. Phase-shift oscillators are often used at audio udio frequency as audio oscillators. Model Graph:. What happens at the output if Rf is changed? How is phase shift oscillator different from RC phase shift oscillator? What are the applications of phase shift oscillator? How is Wein bridge oscillator different from RC phase shift oscillator? What are the applications of Wein bridge oscillator?

What is the condition for the bridge to be balanced? Multivibrators are group of regenerative circuits. They are widely used in timing applications. An electronic circuit that generates square waves or other non-sinusoidal such a rectangular, saw tooth waves is known as a multivibrator.

A multivibrator is a switching circuit, which depends for operation on positive feedback. It is basically a two-stage amplifier with output of one feedback to the input of the other. Multivibrators are classified as Bistable multivibrator Monostable multivibrator Astable multivibrator. Astable circuits are used to generate square waves. It is also known as free running multivibrator. The circuit has two quasi stable states no stable state. Thus, there is an oscillation between two states and no external signals are required to produce the change in state.

In a free running mode, the two states of the multivibrator are momentarily stable and the circuit switches respectively between these two states. In one state the amplifier output goes to positive saturation level while in the other state it goes into negative saturation.

Get the required components and check the condition of them. Switch on the power supply and look at the output with CRO.

Measure the width and time period of the output waveform. Look at the voltage across the capacitor, an exponentially rising and falling wave between 5V and 10V is noted. After completing the experiments, reduce the supply to zero potential and disconnect the circuit diagram.

It generates a single pulse of specified duration in response to each external trigger signal. A mono-stable multivibrator exits only one stable state. The circuit remains in a quasistable state for a fixed interval of time and then reverts to its original stable state. An internal trigger signal is generated which produces the transition to the stable state.

Usually, the charging and discharging of a capacitor provides this internal trigger signal. Figure 5. What is a multivibrator? Give the principle of operation of Multivibrators? What is another name for astable multivibrator?

What do you mean by astable multivibrator? Differentiate astable and monostable multivibrator? Give the application of astable multivibrator. An improved filter response can be obtained by using a second order active filter. The high pass filter is the complement of the low pass filter. Thus the high pass filter canbe obtained by interchanging R and C in the circuit of low pass configuration.

A high pass filterallows only frequencies above a certain bread point to pass through and it terminates the lowfrequency components. The range of frequencies beyond its lower cut off frequency fL is calledstop band. The BPF is the combination of high and low pass filters and this allows a specified range of frequencies to pass through.

It has two stop bands in range of frequencies between 0 to fL andbeyond fH. Hence its bandwidth is fL-fH.

This filter has a maximum gain at the resonant frequency fr which is defined as. Transfer function of second order Butterworth LPF as: Design the second order high pass filter at a cut off frequency of 1khz with passband gain of 2.

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Design a second order low pass filter at high cutoff frequency of 1kHz. Figure 6. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram. The signal which has to be made sine is applied to the RC filter pair circuit with the noninverting terminal. Calculating Gain through the formula and plotting the frequency response characteristics using Semi-log graph sheet and finding out the 3 dB line for fc. What is pass band and stop band? What has to be done in the circuit, if you want your filter to exactly follow the cut-off frequency?

Can a Band pass filter be constructed just by coupling a low pass filter and high pass filter, how? Why do we draw a line at 3 dB below the peak gain to calculate the pass band of a filter?

Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Switch on the power supply.

Give voltage to the IC. Note the sequence of LED blinking. The input to a digital to analog converter is a binary signal available in parallel form. These digital signals are available at the output of the latches or registers and correspond to logic 0 and logic 1.

These voltages are not directly applied to the converter but are used to operate digitally controlled switches. The switch is put into two positions depending on the digital signal 1 or 0, which connect the fixed voltages. Let us suppose we want to convert the binary form the processing unit to a 0 to 3 volts output. We must first set up a truth table for all possible situations.

Switch ON the power supply. Set the digital input by using switches SW1 to SW8 4. The output analog equivalent for the digital data can be viewed from pin6 5. Verify the analog output theoretically by sing the formula given below 6. Figure 7. To design, construct and test the astable multivibrator and monostable multivibrator using IC IC is a combination of linear comparators and digital flip flops.

The output FF circuit is brought out through an amplifier stage. The FF output is also give to a transistor to discharge a timing capacitor. When IC is to be configured as an astable multivibrator, both the trigger and threshold inputs pins 2 and 6 to the two comparators are connected together and to the external capacitor.

The capacitor charges toward the supply voltage through the two resistors, R1 and R2. The discharge pin 7 connected to the internal transistor is connected to the junction of those two resistors. Monostable operation:. When a negative-going trigger pulse is applied to the trigger input, the threshold on the lower comparator is exceeded.

The lower comparator, therefore, sets the flip-flop.

That causes T1 to cut off, acting as an open circuit. The setting of the flip-flop also causes a positive-going output level which is the beginning of the output timing pulse. The capacitor now begins to charge through the external resistor. That terminates the output pulse which switches back to zero. At this time, T1 again conducts thereby discharging the capacitor.

Whenever a trigger pulse is applied to the input, the will generate its singleduration output pulse. Figure 8. Observe the voltage across the capacitor and note down the amplitude. Tabulate the readings 5.


Plot the graph. Thus the design of Astable multivibrator and Monostable multivibrator was done and output was verified. What are the modes of operation of timers? Explain the function of reset. Define duty cycle. Mention the applications of IC Give the methods for obtaining symmetrical square wave. What is the other name for monostable multivibrator? Explain the operation of IC in astable mode.

Explain the operation of IC in monostable mode. Why negative pulse is used as trigger? What is the charging time for capacitor in monostable mode? Figure shows the block diagram of a frequency multiplier using the PLL. The frequency counter is inserted between the VCO and the phase comparator. Since the output of the divider is locked to the input frequency fIN, the VCO is actually running at a multiple of the input frequency. The desired amount of multiplication can be obtained by selecting a proper divide by N network, where N is an integer.

The 4 bit binary counter is configured as a divide by 5 circuit. The transistor Q is used as a driver stage to increase the driving capability of the NE C3 is used to eliminate possible oscillation. C2 should be large enough to stabilize the VCO frequency. Connect the circuit as shown in figure. The free running frequency fOUT of VCO is varied by adjusting R1 and C1 and the output frequency is determined and it should be 5 times the input frequency.

Determine the output frequency for different input frequency of 1 KHz and 1. The frequency multiplier using PLL principle is studied and the output waveform is observed.

What are the other applications of PLL?

Explain the working of the transistor 2N? What is VCO? Explain its working. What are the characteristics of PLL? What is IC ? An instrumentationamplifier is a type of differential amplifier that has been outfitted with input buffers, which eliminate the need for input impedance matching and thus make the amplifier particularly suitable for use in measurement and test equipment.

Although the instrumentation amplifier is usually shown schematically identical to a standard op-amp, the electronic instrumentation amp is almost always internally composed of 3 opamps.

The most commonly used instrumentation amplifier circuit is shown in the figure. The gain of the circuit is. The two amplifiers on the left are the buffers. The buffer gain could be increased by putting resistors between the buffer inverting inputs and ground to shunt away some of the negative feedback; however, the single resistor Rgain between the two inverting inputs is a much more mo elegant method: This increases the common common-mode mode rejection ratio CMRR of the circuit and also enables the buffers to handle much larger common common-mode signals without clipping than would be the case if they were separate and had the same gain.

Another benefit of the method is that it boosts the gain using a single resistor rather than a pair, thus avoiding a resistorresistor matching problem although the two R1s need to be matched , and very conveniently allowing the gain of the circuit to be changed by changing the value of a single resistor.

A set of switchswitch selectable resistors or even a potentiometer can be used for Rgain, providing easy changes to the gain of the circuit, without the complexity of having to switch matched pairs of resistors.In the stable state transistor Q1 is on and capacitor C is shorted out to ground. The width of the output pulse is given by. The feedback network 'shifts' the phase of the amplifier output by degrees at the oscillation frequency to give positive feedback feedback. What is regulated power supply?

Supply is connected to the corresponding terminals.

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