All COBUILD language reference books are based on the . The Collins COBUILD English Grammar is designed to be used both for quick. Project Gutenberg's The Grammar of English Grammars, by Gould Brown This eBook is for the use The COLLINS COBUILD ENGLISH GRAMMAR - STIBA). But there is a major area of English grammar based on prepositions (see Chapter 6), which. full Contents The Grammar of English Grammars.
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Request PDF on ResearchGate | Collins COBUILD English Usage | The new second edition of the Collins COBUILD English Usage has been specially. Introduction: This grammar is suitable for anyone who is interested in the English language and how it works in everyday current contexts. This major new edition of the Collins COBUILD English Grammar is a modern, global and learner-focussed grammar reference, aimed at learners and teachers .
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Correct Your English Errors. Tim Collins. English Grammar Workbook For Dummies. Nuala O'Sullivan. English Grammar Guide: Penguin Writers' Guides: How to Write Better English. From this we can see the reporting clause as a more general way of introducing another clause. Examples All the examples in this book are taken from the Collins corpus.
As ever, the corpus lies at the heart of each grammar point described, helping compilers to make con dent and accurate decisions about di erent structures and usage. Examples themselves remain close to the corpus, with minor changes made so that they are more accessible to the learner. They are carefully chosen so as to illustrate typical patterns and collocations in real-life situations.
Groups of words that behave in the same way As well as providing a wealth of illustrative examples, this book gives further information about the grammar of a large number of specific words. The actual words and phrases that are regularly used in each structure are given in a series of lists.
In this way, the learner can get a good idea of how large or small a grammatical class is, and how many words a certain rule applies to.
Wherever there is good reason to do so, the words and phrases are grouped together in a list in a meaningful arrangement. So, for example, at 1. These all share the same feature, i. From a purely grammatical point of view, they could all go in a single alphabetical list; however from a teaching and learning point of view, it is helpful to have them further classified according to their meaning.
Some are well known, such as the fact that almost any noun in English can modify another noun. For example, the noun steam can be used in, among others, the following combinations: steam bath, steam room, steam engine, steam iron, steam power, and steam train. In such cases, rather than giving a de nite rule, we prefer to give guidance so that the user can make individual choices with no serious risk of error.
Sinclair John. Collins Cobuild English Grammar
By describing the language in this way, we give plenty of scope for creativity and innovation. Accessibility When using a grammar, it can be di cult to nd the information that you want. This is often the biggest single problem for users of grammars, and a good reason why grammars are often unpopular with learners.
This grammar makes a special effort to support the user. We have aimed to use the most up-to-date and commonly used grammatical terminology throughout. Technical terms have been used only where there is no obvious alternative.
A glossary of terms is provided and they are also all listed in the index. There is a contents list at the beginning of the book. Using this or the index, the user will be able to nd the section or paragraph where a function is associated with a structure. Throughout the book there are paragraph headings that show the topic of almost every paragraph, and there are frequent additional headings for each section of a chapter.
At the top of each page, there is another heading to guide the user. New developments in language The continued development of the corpus has enabled us to keep up with the ever-changing nature of language. The researchers tracked the development of a set of grammatical features, including: i the use of the progressive with so-called stative verbs e.
There was much debate iii the spread of generic pronouns e. You get some people who are very difficult iv the use of like in reporting structures e. The grammar of academic and business English In the course of our preparation for this new edition, teachers and learners told us that a useful extension of our functional approach would be to focus on two main contexts in which English is used as a lingua franca throughout the world — academic and business English.
As a result, two brand-new supplementary sections have been added. These identify the principal areas of grammar that learners need to master if they wish to communicate effectively in business and academic contexts. The academic English section covers such areas as explaining results, reviewing research, and reporting ndings. The section on the grammar of business English looks at typical structures used in such contexts as sharing information, negotiating, and giving presentations.
Extensive crossreferencing allows the user to refer back to the main text, where structures are discussed in greater detail. Regular verbs have identical past tense and past participle forms in -ed, but there are or so irregular English verbs with different forms see list. The verb be has the largest number of irregular forms am, is, are in the present tense, was, were in the past tense, been for the past participle.
Most of what are often referred to as verb tenses or sometimes aspects in English are formed using auxiliary verbs. The auxiliaries shall and should sometimes replace will and would in the first person. For the uses of these various verb forms, see English verbs and English clause syntax.
The basic form of the verb be, write, play is used as the infinitive , although there is also a "to-infinitive" to be, to write, to play used in many syntactical constructions. There are also infinitives corresponding to other aspects: to have written, to be writing, to have been writing. The second-person imperative is identical to the basic infinitive; other imperative forms may be made with let let us go, or let's go; let them eat cake. A form identical to the infinitive can be used as a present subjunctive in certain contexts: It is important that he follow them or There is also a past subjunctive distinct from the simple past only in the possible use of were instead of was , used in some conditional sentences and similar: if I were or was rich For details see English subjunctive.
The passive voice is formed using the verb be in the appropriate tense or form with the past participle of the verb in question: cars are driven, he was killed, I am being tickled, it is nice to be pampered, etc. The performer of the action may be introduced in a prepositional phrase with by as in they were killed by the invaders. The English modal verbs consist of the core modals can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would, as well as ought to , had better, and in some uses dare and need.
The modals are used with the basic infinitive form of a verb I can swim, he may be killed, we dare not move, need they go? The copula be, along with the modal verbs and the other auxiliaries , form a distinct class, sometimes called " special verbs " or simply "auxiliaries".
I could not Apart from those already mentioned, this class may also include used to although the forms did he use to? It also includes the auxiliary do does, did ; this is used with the basic infinitive of other verbs those not belonging to the "special verbs" class to make their question and negation forms, as well as emphatic forms do I like you? For more details of this, see do-support.
Some forms of the copula and auxiliaries often appear as contractions , as in I'm for I am, you'd for you would or you had, and John's for John is. For detail see English auxiliaries and contractions. Phrases[ edit ] A verb together with its dependents, excluding its subject , may be identified as a verb phrase although this concept is not acknowledged in all theories of grammar .
A verb phrase headed by a finite verb may also be called a predicate.
Sinclair John. Collins Cobuild English Grammar
The dependents may be objects , complements, and modifiers adverbs or adverbial phrases. In English, objects and complements nearly always come after the verb; a direct object precedes other complements such as prepositional phrases, but if there is an indirect object as well, expressed without a preposition, then that precedes the direct object: give me the book, but give the book to me.
Certain verb—modifier combinations, particularly when they have independent meaning such as take on and get up , are known as " phrasal verbs ". For details of possible patterns, see English clause syntax.
See the Non-finite clauses section of that article for verb phrases headed by non-finite verb forms, such as infinitives and participles. Adjectives[ edit ] English adjectives , as with other word classes, cannot in general be identified as such by their form,  although many of them are formed from nouns or other words by the addition of a suffix, such as -al habitual , -ful blissful , -ic atomic , -ish impish, youngish , -ous hazardous , etc.
Adjectives may be used attributively , as part of a noun phrase nearly always preceding the noun they modify; for exceptions see postpositive adjective , as in the big house, or predicatively , as in the house is big.
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Certain adjectives are restricted to one or other use; for example, drunken is attributive a drunken sailor , while drunk is usually predicative the sailor was drunk. Comparison[ edit ] Many adjectives have comparative and superlative forms in -er and -est,  such as faster and fastest from the positive form fast. Spelling rules which maintain pronunciation apply to suffixing adjectives just as they do for similar treatment of regular past tense formation ; these cover consonant doubling as in bigger and biggest, from big and the change of y to i after consonants as in happier and happiest, from happy.
The adjectives good and bad have the irregular forms better, best and worse, worst; also far becomes farther, farthest or further, furthest. The adjective old for which the regular older and oldest are usual also has the irregular forms elder and eldest, these generally being restricted to use in comparing siblings and in certain independent uses.
For the comparison of adverbs, see Adverbs below. Many adjectives, however, particularly those that are longer and less common, do not have inflected comparative and superlative forms. Instead, they can be qualified with more and most, as in beautiful, more beautiful, most beautiful this construction is also sometimes used even for adjectives for which inflected forms do exist.
Certain adjectives are classed as ungradable. Consequently, comparative and superlative forms of such adjectives are not normally used, except in a figurative, humorous or imprecise context. Similarly, such adjectives are not normally qualified with modifiers of degree such as very and fairly, although with some of them it is idiomatic to use adverbs such as completely.
Another type of adjectives sometimes considered ungradable is those that represent an extreme degree of some property, such as delicious and terrified.
Phrases[ edit ] An adjective phrase is a group of words that plays the role of an adjective in a sentence. It usually has a single adjective as its head , to which modifiers and complements may be added.
Some can also be preceded by a noun or quantitative phrase, as in fat-free, two-metre-long. Complements following the adjective may include: prepositional phrases : proud of him, angry at the screen, keen on breeding toads; infinitive phrases: anxious to solve the problem, easy to pick up; content clauses , i.
An adjective phrase may include both modifiers before the adjective and a complement after it, as in very difficult to put away. Adjective phrases containing complements after the adjective cannot normally be used as attributive adjectives before a noun.
Exceptions include very brief and often established phrases such as easy-to-use. Certain complements can be moved to after the noun, leaving the adjective before the noun, as in a better man than you, a hard nut to crack. Certain attributive adjective phrases are formed from other parts of speech, without any adjective as their head, as in a two-bedroom house, a no-jeans policy. Adverbs[ edit ] Adverbs perform a wide range of functions.
They typically modify verbs or verb phrases , adjectives or adjectival phrases , or other adverbs or adverbial phrases.
Certain words can be used as both adjectives and adverbs, such as fast, straight, and hard; these are flat adverbs. In earlier usage more flat adverbs were accepted in formal usage; many of these survive in idioms and colloquially.
That's just plain ugly. Some adjectives can also be used as flat adverbs when they actually describe the subject.Some suffixes that are commonly used to form adverbs from nouns are -ward[s] as in homeward[s] and -wise as in lengthwise.
How to write a great review Do Say what you liked best and least Describe the author's style Explain the rating you gave Don't Use rude and profane language Include any personal information Mention spoilers or the book's price Recap the plot. Each of these functions is regularly expressed in English by one particular structure.
Chapter 6 deals with adverbs and prepositions, chapter 7 with reporting, chapter 8 with joining words, phrases and clauses, and chapters 9 and 10 with continuous text.
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