The Reviewed Link For Balakumaran Novels PDF Online Reading and Download - Today. The Collection of Every Author Novels are Updated regularly. Results 1 - 16 of Online shopping from a great selection at Books Store. Books shelved as balakumaran: உடையார் #1 [Udayar] by பாலகுமாரன், கங்கை கொண்ட சோழன் பாகம் 1 [ Gangai Konda.
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Balakumaran Novels. Balakumaran Novels Free Download. AGALYAA · MERCURY POOKKAL Agni Siragugal Audio Book. The inspirational life of Dr. APJ. FYKI, it is illegal to download books that are in print and still belong to the author or However, I do agree that it is more convenient to have them as pdf or other. Balakumaran (5 July – 15 May ) was an Indian Tamil writer and author of over Balakumaran had the habit of experiencing characters by himself when writing a book. . Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
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Rangaprasad Bhat. If you haven't received anytyhing in 15 minutes, reach out to us at success marmalead. We have millions index of Ebook Files urls from around the world Manipulation of Marma Points on a goat. A large number of stone inscriptions by the Cholas themselves and by their rival kings, Pandyas and Chalukyas, and copper-plate grants, have been instrumental in constructing the history of Cholas of that period. Around , Vijayalaya rose from obscurity to take an opportunity arising out of a conflict between Pandyas and Pallavas, captured Thanjavur and eventually established the imperial line of the medieval Cholas.
Chola territories during Rajendra Chola I, c. Great kings such as Rajaraja Chola I and Rajendra Chola I occupied the throne, and through their leadership and vision took extended the Chola kingdom beyond the traditional limits of a Tamil kingdom. At its peak, the Chola Empire stretched from the island of Sri Lanka in the south to the Godavari basin in the north.
The kingdoms along the east coast of India up to the river Ganges acknowledged Chola suzerainty. Chola navies invaded and conquered Srivijaya in the Malayan archipelago.
Throughout this period, the Cholas were constantly troubled by the ever-resilient Sinhalas, who attempted to overthrow the Chola occupation of Lanka, Pandya princes who tried to win independence for their traditional territories, and by the growing ambitions of the Chalukyas in the western Deccan. This period saw constant warfare between the Cholas and these antagonists. A balance of power existed between the Chalukyas and the Cholas, and there was a tacit acceptance of the Tungabhadra River as the boundary between the two empires.
However, the bone of contention between these two powers was the growing Chola influence in the Vengi kingdom. Chalukya Cholas Marital and political alliances between the Eastern Chalukya kings based around Vengi located on the south banks of the River Godavari began during the reign of Rajaraja following his invasion of Vengi. Rajaraja Chola's daughter married prince Vimaladitya. Virarajendra Chola's son Athirajendra Chola was assassinated in a civil disturbance in and Kulothunga Chola I ascended the Chola throne starting the Chalukya Chola dynasty.
Kulothunga was a son of the Vengi king Rajaraja Narendra. Chola territories during Kulothunga Chola I c. The Cholas lost control of the island of Lanka and were driven out by the revival of Sinhala power. In the Pandya territories, the lack of a controlling central administration prompted a number of claimants to the Pandya throne to cause a civil war in which the Sinhalas and the Cholas were involved by proxy.
During the last century of the Cholas, a permanent Hoysala army was stationed in Kanchipuram to protect them from the growing influence of the Pandyas. At the close of the 12th century , the growing influence of the Hoysalas replaced the declining Chalukyas as the main player in the north. The local feudatories were also becoming sufficiently confident to challenge the central Chola authority. One feudatory, the Kadava chieftain Kopperunchinga I, even held the Chola king as hostage for sometime.
The Cholas were exposed to assaults from within and without. The Pandyas in the south had risen to the rank of a great power. The Hoysalas in the west threatened the existence of the Chola empire. Rajendra tried to survive by aligning with the two powers in turn. The last recorded date of Rajendra III is There is no evidence that Rajendra was followed immediately by another Chola prince.
The Chola empire was completely overshadowed by the Pandyan empire, though many small chieftains continued to claim the title "Chola" well into the 15th century. Government and society Chola country According to Tamil tradition, the old Chola country comprised the region that includes the modern-day Tiruchirapalli District, and the Thanjavur District in Tamil Nadu state.
The Kaveri River and its tributaries dominate this landscape of generally flat country that gradually slopes towards the sea, unbroken by major hills or valleys. The river Kaveri, which was also known as Ponni golden river, had a special place in the culture of Cholas. The unfailing annual floods in the Kaveri marked an occasion for celebration, Adiperukku, in which the whole nation took part, from the king to the lowliest peasant.
Kaverippattinam on the coast near the Kaveri delta was a major port town. Ptolemy knew of this and the other port town of Nagappattinam as the most important centres of Cholas. These two cosmopolitan towns became hubs of trade and commerce and attracted many religious faiths, including Buddhism. Roman galleys found their way in to these ports. Roman coins dating from the early centuries of the common era have been found near the Kaveri delta.
The other major towns were Thanjavur, Urayur and Kudanthai. The later Chola kings of the Chalukya Chola dynasty moved around their country frequently and made cities such as Chidambaram, Madurai and Kanchipuram their regional capitals.
Nature of government In the age of the Cholas, the whole of South India was, for the first time, brought under a single government, when a serious attempt was made to face and solve the problems of public administration. The Cholas system of government was monarchical, as in the Sangam age. However, there was little in common between the primitive and somewhat tribal chieftaincy of the earlier time, and the almost Byzantine royalty— Rajaraja Chola—and his successors with its numerous palaces, and the pomp and circumstance associated with the royal court.
Between , and c. Although Vengi had a separate political existence, it was so closely connected to the Chola Empire that, for all practical purposes, the Chola dominion extended up to the banks of the Godavari river.
Extent of Chola empire c. However both Kanchipuram and Madurai were considered to be regional capitals, in which occasional courts were held.
The king was the supreme commander and a benevolent dictator. His administrative role consisted of issuing oral commands to responsible officers when representations were made to him. A powerful bureaucracy assisted the king in the tasks of administration and in executing his orders.
All Chola kings built temples and endowed great wealth to them. The temples acted not only as places of worship but as centres of economic activity, benefiting their entire community.
Local government Every village was a self-governing unit. A number of villages constituted a larger entity known as a Kurram, Nadu or Kottram, depending on the area.
A number of Kurrams constituted a valanadu. These structures underwent constant change and refinement throughout the Chola period. Justice was mostly a local matter in the Chola Empire; minor disputes were settled at the village level.
Punishment for minor crimes were in the form of fines or a direction for the offender to donate to some charitable endowment. Even crimes such as manslaughter or murder were punished with fines. Crimes of the state, such as treason, were heard and decided by the king himself; the typical punishment in these cases was either execution or the confiscation of property. Foreign trade Hindu temple complex at Prambanan in Java clearly showing Dravidian architectural influences The Cholas excelled in foreign trade and maritime activity, extending their influence overseas to China and Southeast Asia.
Towards the end of the 9th century , the countries of southern India had developed extensive maritime and commercial activity.
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The Cholas, being in possession of parts of both the west and the east coasts of peninsular India, were at the forefront of these ventures. The Tang dynasty of China, the Srivijaya empire in the Malayan archipelago under the Sailendras, and the Abbasid Kalifat at Bagdad were the main trading partners. Chinese Song Dynasty reports record that an embassy from Chulian Chola reached the Chinese court in the year , and that the king of the Chulien at the time was called Ti-hua-kia-lo.
This embassy was a trading venture and was highly profitable to the visitors, who returned with 81, strings of copper coins in exchange for articles of tributes, including glass articles, and spices.
A fragmentary Tamil inscription found in Sumatra cites the name of a merchant guild Nanadesa Tisaiyayirattu Ainnutruvar literally, "the five hundred from the four countries and the thousand directions" , a famous merchant guild in the Chola country.
The inscription is dated , indicating that there was an active overseas trade during the Chola period. Chola society There is little information on the size and the density of the population during the Chola reign.
The overwhelming stability in the core Chola region enabled the people to lead a very productive and contented life. There is only one recorded instance of civil disturbance during the entire period of Chola reign. However, there were reports of widespread famine caused by natural calamities. The quality of the inscriptions of the regime indicates a presence of high level of literacy and education in the society. The text in these inscriptions was written by court poets and engraved by talented artisans.
Education in the contemporary sense was not considered important; there is circumstantial evidence to suggest that some village councils organised schools to teach the basics of reading and writing to children, although there is no evidence of systematic educational system for the masses.
Vocational education was through hereditary training in which the father passed on his skills to his sons.
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Tamil was the medium of education for the masses; Sanskrit education was restricted to the Brahmins. Religious monasteries matha or gatika were centres of learning, which were supported by the government. Cultural contributions Detail of the main vimanam tower of the Thanjavur Temple Under the Cholas, the Tamil country reached new heights of excellence in art , religion and literature.
In all of these spheres, the Chola period marked the culmination of movements that had begun in an earlier age under the Pallavas. Monumental architecture in the form of majestic temples and sculpture in stone and bronze reached a finesse never before achieved in India.
The Cholas excelled in maritime activity in both military and the mercantile fields.There is no evidence that Rajendra was followed immediately by another Chola prince. Retrieved 16 May I did a lot of research for my novel Gangaikonda Chozhan also. The Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang, who spent several months in Kanchipuram during — writes about the 'kingdom of Culi-ya'.
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